One of the latest developments, in what has been a tumultuous couple of years, is the recent monkeypox outbreaks that we're hearing about in the news. But what is monkeypox and should you be concerned? Monkeypox is a rare disease which is similar to smallpox but significantly less severe. Native to Africa, monkeypox is usually spread through animal-to-human contact. Once infected, the individual will likely notice skin lesions, fever, swollen lymph nodes and head and body aches. While most people will get better within two-four weeks, monkeypox can be fatal for some. Indeed, the World Health Organization (WHO) says monkeypox has a case fatality ratio of around 3-6%. As of May 21, 2022, the WHO says there are 92 laboratory-confirmed cases and 28 suspected cases of monkeypox from 12 Member States not endemic to the monkeypox virus, with no deaths thus far. According to Dr. Alex Li, deputy chief medical officer, L.A. Care Health Plan, there is no need for panic. “The CDC is monitoring this situation very closely,” he said. Li added that anyone who has symptoms similar to chickenpox, has had contact with symptomatic people, or has recently traveled to Africa, should contact a healthcare professional. *image: Congo rope squirrel (Funisciurus congicus), Damaraland, Namibia. Congo rope squirrels are one of several animals susceptible to the monkeypox virus. Credit: licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
They are known to be able to sniff out illegal drugs and even cancer, but now a new study suggests sniffer dogs can also detect COVID-19 among airline passengers. Perhaps even more remarkable is the study, conducted by researchers in Finland, also found that once trained, dogs are as acuurate at sniffing out COVID-19 as a PCR nose and throat swab test. "Our preliminary observations suggest that dogs primed with one virus type can in a few hours be retrained to detect its variants," added Anu Kantele, a professor of infectious diseases at the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Helsinki, Finland, and colleagues. For the study, the researchers took four dogs previously trained to detect illegal drugs, dangerous goods and cancers, and trained them to recognise SARS-CoV-2 – the virus that causes COVID-19. To do so, the study team used swab samples from 114 people who had tested positive for the virus on a PCR swab test, including 28 with no symptoms, and from 306 negative tests. Remarkably, the dogs were able to successfully detect 92% of infected people and 91% of uninfected people. The dogs' noses were then put to the test in a live environment at Helsinki-Vantaa International Airport in Finland between September 2020 and April 2021. The dogs correctly identified 296 (99%) of 300 passengers with negative PCR results. Read the full release at BMJ Global Health. *Image: Sniffer dogs at Melbourne Airport doing a demonstration, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license.
The International Vaccine Institute (IVI) in South Korea and the Joint European Disruptive Initiative (JEDI) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to establish a collaborative relationship. Both organizations are dedicated to advancing innovations in health and science. IVI and JEDI will explore many cooperation routes, in particular around innovative approaches to zoonoses, infectious diseases and in addressing the global threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Additionally, the MOU invites Dr. Jerome Kim, Director General of IVI; Francois Belin, Chief Operating Officer of IVI; and Dr Anh Wartel, Deputy Director General of IVI’s Clinical, Assessment, Regulatory, and Evaluation Unit; to participate in JEDI’s International Partners Advisory Board. The signing ceremony took place at the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) in Paris, France with Dr Jerome Kim and André Loesekrug-Pietri, Chairman of JEDI. Dr Kim said “With JEDI’s common interest in combatting existing and future zoonoses as well as global AMR, we look forward to collaborating on solutions to this threat to humanity.” Loesekrug-Pietri said “As we did for the JEDI GrandChallenge against Covid-19, we want to introduce disruptive approaches to other fields of healthcare, with boldness and a total focus on excellence. As a first concrete step, we are excited to work with IVI to tackle antimicrobial resistance, including new capabilities in computational biology.” *Image by Michal Jarmoluk from Pixabay
France’s healthcare system is to benefit from €7bn worth of investment, which is designed to drive innovation in the sector. Speaking at the end of June, French President Emmanuel Macron announced that public funding would be made available in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic in the country. Part of France’s Health Innovation Plan 2030, €2bn will be invested by the state-owned Banque Publique d'Investissement (BPI) in start-ups and small and medium-sized companies (SMEs) in the healthcare industry. France will also invest €2bn in research for emerging and infectious diseases, biotherapies and digital health. Following the COVID-19 pandemic, the plan will allocate almost €750 million for emerging infectious diseases and CBRN (nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical) threats. Another €800m will be dedicated to biotherapies and the bioproduction of innovative therapies that represent 50% of the clinical trials currently underway. These technologies enable the development of so-called personalised medicine by providing therapeutic solutions in oncology, immunology, virology and for rare diseases, for example. President Macron wants to make France the leading European country in healthcare innovation by 2030. He has committed to lift administrative hurdles to speed up organisational changes in the healthcare system. *Image by Parentingupstream from Pixabay
If people washed their hands regularly, social distanced, and wore face masks most COVID-19 outbreaks could be prevented, even without a vaccine or additional treatments, a new study has found. According to the research published in the journal PLoS Medicine, which created a COVID-19 prevention and spread model, the steps should work in most western countries. The research found that government-imposed social distancing measures, such as closing business establishments, cancelling in-person events, and advising people to stay at home whenever possible, can delay the peak of a COVID-19 epidemic by up to seven months on their own. However, when coupled with regular handwashing and wearing masks, the peak of the epidemic can be delayed by a further few months. Furthermore, the earlier people adopt such measures, the greater the positive impact. The researchers from the University Medical Center Utrecht in the Netherlands said in a country where 90% of the population uses multiple actions, such as hand washing and social distancing, a large outbreak of COVID-19 or a second wave could be averted. Speaking about the findings of the research, Ganna Rozhnova, an infectious disease modeler at the University Medical Center Utrecht, said: “If nearly all [the] population adopted self-imposed measures we would not have to confront the possibility of secondary lockdowns as well as the possibility that we may find our medical systems overwhelmed during the peaks of epidemics.”
Authorities in China have stepped up precautions after a person in the country’s Inner Mongolian region was diagnosed with bubonic plague. According to state reports, the Bayannur patient is in quarantine and in a stable condition. A second suspected case involving a 15-year-old girl is currently being investigated. While it remains unclear how either patient contracted the disease, the young girl is said to have been in contact with a marmot (pictured), a species of giant squirrel. Once the world’s most feared disease, bubonic plague is easily treated nowadays using antibiotics. Nevertheless, the herdsman’s diagnosis will cause concern given the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic globally. Bubonic plague is caused by Yersinia pestis bacteria that live in some animals (mainly rodents) and their fleas. As a result of the bubonic plague discovery, a level 3 alert, which bans the hunting and eating of animals that could carry the disease, has been implemented until the end of the year. It is worth noting that these new cases are nothing out of the ordinary. From 2010 to 2015, 3,248 cases of bubonic plague were reported worldwide, including 584 deaths. Speaking about the recent bubonic plague outbreak in China, Dr Matthew Dryden, consultant microbiologist at the University of Southampton in the UK, told BBS News: “It is good that this has been picked up and reported at an early stage because it can be isolated, treated and spread prevented. “Bubonic plague is caused by a bacterium and so, unlike Covid-19, is readily treated with antibiotics. So although this might appear alarming, being another major infectious disease emerging from the East, it appears to be a single suspected case which can be readily treated.”
The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has previously recommended people wear cloth face coverings in public settings to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2. However, some people have been concerned about whether face coverings, such as masks, cause carbon dioxide (CO2) poisoning. Experts have now come out saying that’s impossible. Speaking about the use of cloth face masks, Prof Keith Neal, an infectious disease expert, said wearing one will not cause hypercapnia (too much carbon dioxide in the blood). Echoing these comments, Darrell Spurlock Jr., PhD, RN, the director of the Leadership Center for Nursing Education Research at Widener University, said: “Rebreathing tiny amounts of CO2 from wearing either properly fitted N95 respirators or more loosely fitted cloth or surgical masks is of no concern for the vast, vast majority of people.” Carbon dioxide molecules are tiny and do not get trapped by the breathable material used to make cloth ace masks. When you breathe out, the carbon dioxide goes through and round the mask. Surgeons and other medical professionals regularly wear much more heavy duty face coverings all day without coming to harm. Face masks can play a potentially important role in reducing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 because they can help limit it being transmitted by an infected individual. This is particularly true for people who are asymptomatic and do not actually know they have the virus. The only stipulation when it comes to the wearing of cloth face masks is that people with existing lung conditions should consult their physician before doing so. This is because masks do affect normal air entry and could make breathing difficult for people with severe lung diseases. [Related reading: COVID-19: Could a second wave already be here?]
While there is a lot of focus on how infectious disease outbreaks, like the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, can impact our physical health, their effect on our psychological wellbeing is often overlooked. But the current coronavirus outbreak is scary. Add this to the fact that many of us are spending more time than ever before stuck in our homes and it’s easy to understand how our mental health could be affected by what’s going on. With that in mind, we have compiled this short list of things you can do to protect your mental health during this testing time. 1. Stay informed (but avoid speculation) It’s important to stay informed about the COVID-19 outbreak and access information from high quality, reputable sources. Rumour and speculation only serve to fuel anxiety, which is why you should avoid less than trustworthy news. Also, don’t feel as though you have to constantly watch, read or listen to updates. Limit you consumption to once or twice a day to reduce overwhelm. 2. Stay connected It can be easy to feel isolated right now, especially if you are used to going out and interacting socially with other people. Overcome this feeling by staying as connected as possible with your friends and family. We’ve never had so many methods of communication available to us, so take advantage of technology and keep social conversations going. 3. Stay busy When we’re not keeping ourselves occupied, there’s a tendency for our minds to run wild – especially while there is an ongoing global pandemic. This can lead to negative thoughts, including lots of ‘what if’ scenarios. Use the extra time you’ve got right now to complete all those tasks around your house you’ve been meaning to do for ages. It’ll keep your mind occupied and give you a sense of achievement. [Related reading: 5 simple ways to stay physically active while you’re stuck at home]
New figures show that rates of tuberculosis (TB) in England are at their lowest level in 35 years, having fallen by a third in the last six years. According to data from Public Health England, tuberculosis rates have declined by 38% since 2012. In fact, there was a 9.3% decline in 2017 alone, highlighting how the country’s efforts to eradicate the disease are proving effective. Improved diagnosis, treatment and awareness are being credited for the decline. However, despite the fall, England still has one of the highest rates of TB in Western Europe, with 5,200 people affected in 2017. Dr Sarah Anderson, head of the National TB Office at Public Health England, said: "People often think that TB is a Victorian disease that is no longer a problem in England, but in fact it still affects over 5,000 people a year and there is still a lot to do until the target to eliminate TB is met.” TB is a bacterial infection that primarily affects a person’s lungs and it is spread through coughs and sneezes. But despite its infectious nature, it is actually quite difficult to catch. Nevertheless, it can be fatal if left untreated. Another issue is that TB is becoming resistant to some of the major drugs used to treat it, which is why the BCG vaccine that offers protection against TB is recommended for babies, children and adults alike who are at risk of catching the disease.
In a step designed to help save the NHS in England money, providers of treatment are now required to make sure patients are eligible for free care before they receive it. If they aren’t, healthcare providers will ask them to pay upfront. It is hoped the measures, which will only apply to planned, non-emergency care, will contribute to £22bn of savings needed in the NHS. Accident and emergency (A&E), general practice and infectious disease treatment will remain free to all. Once the new measures are in place, patients will be asked where they have lived over the past six months. If they have lived abroad, they will be required to prove they are eligible for free treatment on the NHS, by showing a non-UK European Health Insurance Card or similar. Speaking about the proposed changes, Health Minister Lord O'Shaughnessy said: “We have no problem with overseas visitors using our NHS as long as they make a fair financial contribution, just as the British taxpayer does. “The new regulations simply require NHS bodies to make enquiries about, and then charge, those who aren't entitled to free NHS care.” However, the British Medical Association has warned that the changes could prevent vulnerable individuals from getting treatment they need.
IM2S - Institut Monégasque de Médecine du Sport, Monaco Situated on the port of Monte-Carlo, IM2S welcomes everyone, whether they practice sport regularly or not, for prevention advice in order to optimise their performance, for tailor-made medical and surgical treatment, physiotherapy and rehabilitation. Key figures In-patient hospital beds 32 Operating rooms 5 Recovery space 8 Surgical ambulatory beds 4 Surgical consultation department 1 Medical consultation department 1 Independent sterilization department 1 Permanent and non-permanent surgeons 11 Medical sport physicians 5 Osteopaths 2 Algologist 1 Infectious disease specialist 1 The Medical and Surgical Orthopaedic Institute of Monaco is specialized in the care of the ostéo-articular pathologies, ligamentary surgery, paediatric orthopaedics and of the vein surgeries. In the surgical domain, the activities are organized in specialties poles: foot, ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, hand, wrist, elbow, spine, and veins. The Institute also developed an activity of paediatric orthopaedic department for children above 5 years old. In the medical and traumatology domain : muscular and articular specialized consultations, effort testing, isocinetism, echography, electromyogram, and shock waves. A traumatological emergency department is opened 7 days a week from 8am to 8pm. it integrates a reception department for hand emergencies. IM2S disposes of a check-up centre, which permits the patients have a complete expertise of their health state. The podology unit is designed for the evaluation and the treatment of the functional pain. The Institute disposes of a research department and dynamic medical training: Monthly post university teaching Pratical patient work Thematic workshop and live surgery Scientific publication Medical meeting IM2S offers: An operating department of 5 operating rooms and 8 recovery space 2 hospitalization floors for a total of 32 beds A surgical ambulatory department of 4 beds A surgical consultation department A medical consultation department An independent sterilization department