Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that occurs when a person’s body ineffectively uses insulin. It is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for 90% to 95% of the more than 30 million diabetes cases in America today. Despite rising numbers, it is estimated that around 80% of new type 2 diabetes diagnoses could be prevented with lifestyle changes and more education. But while it’s been known for some time that when added to a genetic predisposition, factors like being overweight and a lack of physical activity increase a person’s risk of developing type 2 diabetes, very little research has been done to determine the impact of other environmental factors. That’s why a new study by a team from the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) School of Public Health which set out to determine if type 2 diabetes risk changes between urban and rural environments is interesting. According to the research - which involved examining 3,134 people across the United States - the quality of the air, water, and land, as well as numerous sociodemographic factors, such as education, average household income, violent crime rates, or property crime rates has an impact on a person’s type 2 diabetes risk. So-called ‘built domain factors’ were also used. These included how many fast-food restaurants were in a particular area; how many fatal accidents occurred, and how many highways, roadways, or public housing units there were. The research found that a poorer environmental quality was linked with a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Specifically, inferior air quality and built and sociodemographic factors were associated with a higher risk of diabetes in rural areas, while in urban areas, only air and sociodemographic factors were associated with diabetes risk. “There might be something happening in rural areas that is different than in urban areas. Our findings suggest that environmental exposures may be a bigger factor in rural counties than in urban areas in the U.S.,” explains Dr. Jyotsna Jagai, lead author.
A major study has found that the UK has a big obesity problem, and that there are severe health implications for people who are even just a little overweight. According to the research, which was funded by healthcare firm Novo Nordisk, individuals with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30-35 were 70% more likely to develop heart failure than their healthy weight peers (18.5-25 BMI). Furthermore, the study of 2.8 million adults also showed that people who were even slightly overweight were twice as likely to develop Type 2 diabetes. The study, which is due to be presented at the European Congress on Obesity (ECO) in Glasgow, also revealed: The risk of Type 2 diabetes for people with a BMI of 35-40 was almost nine times higher People with severe obesity (BMI of 40-45) were 12 times more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes People with severe obesity also had triple the risk of heart failure, high blood pressure, and dyslipidaemia (elevated levels of total or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, or low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol) A BMI of 40-45 was also linked with a 50% higher risk of dying prematurely from any cause Speaking about the findings of the study, Public Health England said “sustained action” was needed to tackle obesity.
Some of the warning signs often associated with type-2 diabetes can be detected years before the disease is actually diagnosed, researchers say. A study found factors such as insulin resistance and elevated blood sugar levels were seen in people years prior to them developing pre-diabetes – a typical pre-cursor to the type-2 form of the disease. The authors of the Japanese study say their findings suggest that diabetes treatment should begin much earlier in life. For the study, conducted over an 11-year period, the researchers followed a group of 27,000 people who were not diabetic and aged between 30 and 50. The individuals were tracked until they either (a) got diagnosed with type-2 diabetes; (b) got diagnosed with pre-diabetes; or (c) the end of 2016 was reached. During the study, 1,067 new cases of type-2 diabetes were diagnosed. The interesting part is that these people showed warning signs, such as insulin resistance and higher fasting blood sugar levels, up to 10 years prior. Similar warning signs were also seen in those that went on to develop pre-diabetes. So, this suggests that type-2 diabetes could actually be detected up to 20 years before a diagnosis occurs. This is because people who develop type-2 diabetes usually get pre-diabetes first. Dr Hiroyuki Sagesaka, from Aizawa Hospital in Matsumoto, Japan, who led the research, said: “Because trials of prevention in people with pre-diabetes seem to be less successful over long-term follow-up, we may need to intervene much earlier than the pre-diabetes stage to prevent progression to full blown diabetes. “A much earlier intervention trail, either drug or lifestyle-related, is warranted.” [Related reading: Diabetes is actually five diseases, not two]