Lycopene - a natural pigment that gives red fruits and vegetables their colour - is an antioxidant that protects against cell damage, and tomatoes contain plenty of it. In fact, it is estimated that tomatoes account for 80% of the lycopene in the US diet. Now, a new study suggests Lycopene may also help boost sperm quality. According to the research by a team at the University of Sheffield, healthy men who consumed the equivalent of two tablespoons of concentrated tomato puree each day were found to have better quality sperm. During the 12-week trial, 60 men were randomly selected to take 14mg of lactolycopene supplement each day. The reason a supplement was used is because the participants would have had to eat 2kg of tomatoes each day to obtain an equivalent dose of lycopene. The participants’ sperm was tested before, during and after the trial. While there was no difference in sperm concentration, the men who had been taking the lycopene had healthier and faster sperm. Encouraged by the results, the researchers now want to expand the trial to include more men and see if the findings are the same. Lycopene has also been previously linked to other health benefits, including a lowered risk of heart disease and certain cancers.
Drinking red wine (in moderation) could be good for your gut, according to researchers from the UK. The team from King’s College London says red wine contains compounds that help increase the number of different types of bacteria that live in the gut. The micronutrients, known as polyphenols, are more abundant in red wine vs. beer, cider and white wine, and act as fuel for microbes living inside the bowel. Polyphenols are found in many fruits and vegetables, including the grapes used to make red wine. The researchers say even just one glass of red wine a fortnight can make a difference, but warn that their findings should not be used as an excuse to binge drink. Publishing its research in the journal Gastroenterology, the team said the “friendly” bugs in our gut help keep us healthy. Even small changes in our gut microbiota – the community of bugs that live there – can make us more susceptible to conditions like obesity, heart disease and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. The gut microbiota of people who drink red wine was found to be more diverse than that of those who do not drink wine. Furthermore, the more wed wine consumed, the greater the levels of diversity – although it’s important to note that nobody involved in the trial was a heavy drinker. Speaking about the findings of their research, Dr Caroline Le Roy said: “If you must choose one alcoholic drink today, red wine is the one to pick as it seems to potentially exert a beneficial effect on you and your gut microbes, which in turn may also help weight and risk of heart disease.”
People with type-2 diabetes get no benefit from taking omega-3 fish oil supplements, a new study has found. According to researchers from the University of East Anglia, while omega-3 supplements are not harmful for people with type-2 diabetes (this has been a concern previously), they don’t provide any benefit either. This contradicts a common belief that omega-3 can protect against diabetes and even reverse the condition. The study, which involved 58,000 participants, found that people who consumed more omega-3 had the same risk of developing diabetes as individuals who did not. Furthermore, taking omega-3 fish oil did not influence levels of blood glucose, insulin and glycated haemoglobin - all measures of how the body handles sugar. ‘Better to eat fish’ Douglas Twenefour, deputy head of care at Diabetes UK, said: “Eating a healthy, varied diet is incredibly important, and we know that certain foods - including fruits, vegetables, wholegrains, yoghurt and cheese - can help to lower your risk of type 2 diabetes. “While omega-3 fatty acids are crucial for our overall health, it's generally better for people with type 2 diabetes to get their intake by eating at least two portions of oily fish a week, than by taking supplements." The advice from Dr Lee Hooper, who led the research, is to forego the expensive omega-3 supplements and instead buy oily fish and/or spend your money on physical activity, which will have more of a positive impact when it comes to type-2 diabetes.
It’s widely accepted that eating more fruits and vegetables is beneficial to a person’s health. But now a new study has firmly and scientifically concluded that eating foods that are rich in flavonoids (like fruits and vegetables) could stave off disease and extend life. According to research by a group of scientists from Edith Cowan University, Australia, people who eat 500mg of flavonoids every day have the lowest risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease-related deaths. So how much do you need to eat to reap these benefits? Well, the scientists say it is important to get the flavonoids from a variety of sources. They say someone can achieve the 500mg of total flavonoids by consuming one cup of tea, one apple, one orange, 100g of blueberries and 100g of broccoli. Interestingly, the study of more than 50,000 adults found that the benefits of consuming 500mg of flavonoids daily were most pronounced in people who smoke and drink more than two alcoholic beverages every day. However, the scientists were quick to point out that consuming flavonoids does not enough to undo the harmful effects of smoking and high alcohol consumption. The study also found that consuming more than 500mg of flavonoids daily was not associated with any additional benefits. The paper appears in the journal Natural Communications.
By adding just a handful of nuts to their daily diet, men could improve their sexual function, a study suggests. The 14-week trial, which involved 83 men split into two groups, found that adding 60 grams of almonds, hazelnuts and walnuts to a Western-style diet benefitted sexual function. Reporting their findings in the journal Nutrients, the authors of the study said the group of men who ate the extra nuts each day showed significant increases in two measures of erectile and sexual function: orgasmic function and sexual desire. A previous analysis of the trial data in 2018 yielded signs that eating more nuts also improves sperm quality. “Including nuts in a regular diet significantly improved auto-reported orgasmic function and sexual desire,” the Spanish researchers concluded. They are now calling for further, large-scale studies to determine the effect of eating nuts on sexual function – especially as separate research found that consuming pistachios helped improve erectile function. The theory is that pistachios, like many other nuts, contain antioxidants and arginine, a powerful compound that increases vasodilatation. So, if you are not easily able to follow a Mediterranean diet, rich in fruit, vegetables and nuts, you could still reap some of the sexual function rewards by adding just a handful of nuts to your daily diet.
Children whose parents divorce are more likely to get fat than their peers whose parents stay together, new research has revealed. According to the study by researchers from the London School of Economics and Political Science, children whose parents divorce before they are six are particularly impacted. For the study, the researchers analysed data collected by the UK Millennium Cohort Study on 7,574 children born between 2000 and 2002. Of the children involved, 1,573 (around one in five) had witnessed their parents divorce by the time they were 11. These kids gained more weight in the 24-month period following their parents’ divorce than their peers whose parents remained together. Furthermore, the kids whose parents had divorced were also more likely to become overweight or obese within 36 months of their parents separating. The authors of the paper say their findings underline how much of an impact a divorce can have on children and that parental separation is “a process with potentially long-lasting consequences”. As a result, the authors are calling for more health help and support to be given to families going through a break-up. The paper also offers some reasons why children put on weight following a divorce, namely: There’s often less money in separated households for fresh fruit and vegetables Parents having to work longer hours, so there’s less time to prepare nutritious food There’s often less money for extra-curricular activities, including sport Parents with less time and energy to promote healthy eating habits in their children Emotional problems leading to parents overfeeding their children and kids eating too much sugary and fatty food
Many people do not get all the nutrients they need from food and so take supplements to compensate. It’s something that’s worth an absolute fortune to the companies that produce them, with people spending around $30 billion per year on supplements in the United States alone. But new research shows that nutrients from supplements are not as good as those from food and that the latter is linked to a lower risk of all-cause mortality and cancer. According to the research paper, published recently in the Annals of Internal Medicine, many people would be much better off spending money on fruit and vegetables instead of supplements. By analysing data from 27,725 participants in the Centers for Disease Control’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), researchers from the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University in Medford, MA, found that supplements do not afford the same benefits as eating different foods. For example, getting enough vitamin K from leafy greens and magnesium from legumes, nuts and whole grains was associated with a lower mortality rate. However, consuming 1,000 milligrams a day of calcium in supplement form was associated with a higher cancer risk, while getting excess calcium from food wasn’t. Speaking about the findings of the research, Fang Fang Zhang of Tufts University and study senior author, said: “Our results support the idea that, while supplement use contributes to an increased level of total nutrient intake, there are beneficial associations with nutrients from foods that aren’t seen with supplements.” In other words, while supplements can help people who cannot get certain nutrients from foods due to allergies, they are not a silver bullet for health.
Our daily diets are bigger killers than smoking and account for one in five deaths around the world. In other words, the food you eat could be sending you to an early grave. But which diets are the worst? Well, according to an influential study in The Lancet, salt – whether it be in bread, processed meals or soy sauce – shortens the most lives. The Global Burden of Disease Study used estimates of different countries’ eating habits to determine which diets were shortening the most lives. Here are the three most dangerous diets: Too much salt - three million deaths Too few whole grains - three million deaths Too little fruit - two million deaths Low levels of seeds, nuts, vegetables, fibre and omega-3 from seafood were the other major killers. Speaking to the BBC, Prof Christopher Murray, the director of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington, said: “We find that diet is one of the dominant drivers of health around the world, it's really quite profound.” Salt is such a big problem because it significantly increases a person’s blood pressure, which in turn increases their chances of heart attacks and strokes. Around 10 million out of the 11 million diet-related deaths were because of cardiovascular disease, highlighting why diets containing too much salt are such a problem.
The health benefits of eating fiber have long been hailed, but how much fiber should we all be eating to prevent chronic disease and premature death? A new study reveals just that… Commissioned by the World Health Organization (WHO), the research is the culmination of a meta-analysis of observational studies and clinical trials that took place over almost 40 years. The results appear in the journal The Lancet. One of the objectives of the research was to help in the development of new guidelines for dietary fiber consumption, as well as discover which carbs protect us the most against noncommunicable diseases. So how much fiber should we be eating? Well, the research found that a daily intake of 25–29 grams of fiber is ideal. People who consumed this amount of fiber each day were 15–30 percent less likely to die prematurely from any cause and had a 16–24 percent lower incidence of stroke, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and colon cancer. The researchers also say that consuming more than 29 grams of fiber per day could lead to even more health benefits. Speaking about the findings of the study, Professor Jim Mann, of the University of Otago, in New Zealand, said: “The health benefits of fiber are supported by over 100 years of research into its chemistry, physical properties, physiology, and effects on metabolism. “Fiber-rich whole foods that require chewing and retain much of their structure in the gut increase satiety and help weight control and can favorably influence lipid and glucose levels. “The breakdown of fiber in the large bowel by the resident bacteria has additional wide-ranging effects including protection from colorectal cancer.” Fiber-rich foods include vegetables, whole grains, fruit, and pulses, such as beans, peas, lentils, and chickpeas. Are you consuming enough fiber?
The New Year is here and for many that means attempting to stick to one or a bunch of resolutions. Eating more healthily, doing more exercise and quitting smoking will be at the top of the list for many people. If one of your goals for 2019 is eating more healthily, perhaps you should consider following a Mediterranean diet. While it varies depending on where you go, a Mediterranean diet, in a nutshell, is one that incorporates all of the healthy eating habits of people who live in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea, including France, Greece, Italy and Spain - so more vegetables, fruits, beans, legumes, nuts, grains, cereals, fish, and unsaturated fats such as olive oil. And less meat and dairy foods. As well as being linked with better health, including a healthier heart, a Mediterranean diet also promotes healthy brain aging, according to new research. A recent study involving 116 healthy adults aged 65–75 years, conducted by the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, found that participants who ate a Mediterranean diet performed better in memory, general intelligence, and executive function tests. “Our study suggests that diet and nutrition moderate the association between network efficiency and cognitive performance,” said Aron Barbey, a psychology professor at The University of Illinois.
We recently wrote about how foods packed with good bacteria provide no benefits. Now, new research is dragging yoghurts under the spotlight because of the amount of sugar many contain. In fact, according to the research led by Leeds University in the UK, some yoghurts contain more sugar per 100g than cola. Publishing their findings in the journal BMJ Open, the team of researchers said that even organic yoghurts often contain way too much sugar. The only yoghurts, they said, that can be considered low in sugar are natural and Greek-style. For the research, the team analysed 900 different yoghurts on sale in supermarkets in the UK. Perhaps unsurprisingly, yoghurt deserts were found to contain the most sugar (an average of 16.4g per 100g). More surprising, though, are the findings relating to organic yoghurts. That’s because many people see them as a healthy option, not knowing they contain so much sugar. The UK government are trying to reduce the amount of sugar consumed by the public and yoghurts are one of the areas they want to see addressed. This new research underlines why. To be classed as ‘low sugar’ a product needs to contain no more than 5g of sugar per 100g. Just 9% of the yoghurts studied were found to be below this threshold. Dr Bernadette Moore, lead researcher of the study, said: “I think people, including parents, will be surprised to know just how much sugar there is in yoghurt. “My advice would be to buy natural yoghurt and mix in your own fruit.”
AVIS D’EXPERT - Une concentration en potassium dans le sang supérieure à la normale peut notamment être le signe d’une maladie rénale. Les médecins prescrivent souvent des dosages des principaux électrolytes (éléments chimiques porteurs de charge électrique) du plasma (sodium, potassium, chlore,bicarbonate) chez les malades hypertendus ou atteints de maladies cardiaques ou rénales. Le plasma est le liquide qui transporte les différentes cellules du sang. Connaître les concentrations dans le plasma de ces substances est essentiel parce qu'elles jouent un rôle majeur dans les transferts d'eau entre les différents compartiments hydriques, la régulation du pH (index de l'acidité) du plasma et la transmission de l'influx nerveux. Quelles sont les causes possibles d’un excès de potassium? Comment celui-ci se traite-t-il? Le Pr Raymond Ardaillou, néphrologue et secrétaire perpétuel de l’Académie de médecine fait le point. Potassium: quelle concentration normale? La concentration en potassium dans le plasma sanguin est normalement comprise entre 3,6 et 5 mmol/l (130 à 200 mg/l). La répartition du potassium dans l'organisme est très inégalitaire puisque sa concentration dans les cellules varie de 90 à 150 mmol/l. L'alimentation apporte environ chez un adulte 60 à 120 mmol de potassium par jour. Les aliments les plus riches en potassium sont les fruits, les légumes et le chocolat. Le potassium ingéré est en quasi-totalité absorbé dans le tube digestif et se retrouve dans les urines en quantité équivalente à celle absorbée dans l'intestin. Le rôle physiologique principal du potassium, porteur d'une charge positive, est de générer le potentiel de membrane qui est la différence de charge électrique de part et d'autre de la membrane cellulaire, l'intérieur de la cellule étant électronégatif par rapport à l'extérieur. La sévérité de l'hyperkaliémie (augmentation de la concentration de potassium dans le plasma) provient de la perturbation qu'elle provoque, du potentiel de membrane dans les cellules cardiaques et des troubles du rythme qui s'ensuivent. Les causes possibles d’un excès de potassium L'hyperkaliémie provient soit d'un défaut d'excrétion rénale du potassium, soit d'un passage accru du potassium cellulaire dans le compartiment extra-cellulaire. Les hyperkaliémies d'origine rénale surviennent en cas d'insuffisance rénale ou, sur reins sains, si la sécrétion d'aldostérone, une hormone qui contrôle le transport du sodium et du potassium dans la partie distale du néphron (unité structurale et fonctionnelle du rein qui possède environ 1.000.000 de néphrons), est insuffisante.
Par Martine Lochouarn Publié le 17/06/2018 à 06:00 INFOGRAPHIE - Un diagnostic précoce de ce cancer permettrait d’améliorer la prise en charge. Au cinquième rang mondial par sa fréquence, le cancer de l’estomac figure en troisième place par le nombre de morts, près de 9 % de tous les décès par cancer. Son incidence varie selon les régions du globe, les ethnies et le niveau de développement. L’Asie de l’Est, Japon, Corée et Chine surtout, est fortement touchée, mais aussi l’Amérique du Sud. «Intermédiaire en Europe de l’Est, son incidence est plus faible en Europe de l’Ouest, à l’exception du Portugal, fortement touché», explique le Pr Tamara Matysiak-Budnik, gastro-entérologue et cancérologue (CHU Nantes). En France, de 6000 à 7000 nouveaux cas sont diagnostiqués chaque année, pour 4500 décès. C’est un cancer du sujet âgé, de pronostic médiocre. En quelques décennies, les progrès de l’hygiène alimentaire ont beaucoup réduit son incidence, qui est aujourd’hui assez stable. «L’association démontrée entre infection par H.pylori et cancer gastrique est aussi forte que celle entre tabac et cancer du poumon.» Pr Tamara Matysiak-Budnik, gastro-entérologue et cancérologue (CHU Nantes) La forme la plus fréquente, qui touche le corps et la partie basse de l’estomac, diminue encore peu à peu, mais les cancers de la jonction estomac-oesophage (cardia) plus rares, augmentent avec l’épidémie d’obésité qui favorise le reflux gastro-œsophagien. Moins de 5 % des cancers sont d’origine génétique. Il s’agit souvent de cancers «diffus», infiltrant l’estomac, de très mauvais pronostic, qui touchent des sujets jeunes. Mais le premier facteur de risque de cancer de l’estomac, c’est l’infection par Helicobacter pylori, responsable de près de 90 % des cas. Cette bactérie acquise dans l’enfance colonise la muqueuse gastrique, le plus souvent sans symptôme. «L’association démontrée entre infection par H. pylori et cancer gastrique est aussi forte que celle entre tabac et cancer du poumon», explique la gastro-entérologue. En France, de 20 à 30 % des individus sont infectés, mais 80 % le sont en Afrique et 10 % dans les pays nordiques. Parmi les personnes infectées, de 2 à 20 % auront un ulcère, et parmi elles 1 % aura un cancer gastrique. «Ce processus complexe de carcinogenèse s’étend sur des décennies et passe par une cascade d’étapes, dont la première, la gastrite superficielle, ne survient pas sans infection par H. pylori, ce qui ne signifie pas que cette infection est suffisante», explique le Pr Matysiak-Budnik. L’excès de sel, de viande rouge, d’aliments fumés, le tabac favorisent aussi ce processus, les fruits et légumes ayant un effet protecteur. Les antibiotiques pour éradiquer la bactérie «L’éradication par antibiotiques de l’infection à H. pylori guérit et fait régresser les gastrites superficielles et la plupart des gastrites atrophiques, prévenant ainsi le cancer de l’estomac.» Comme l’incidence de ce cancer est faible en France, un dépistage sur toute la population ne paraît pas adapté. Mais il existe au Japon, et la Slovénie l’envisage. En revanche, la recherche de H. pylori et son éradication sont indispensables dans les formes héréditaires, chez les parents au premier degré de personnes ayant un cancer gastrique, chez les personnes ayant un ulcère, une gastrique atrophique, précancéreuse, ou ayant subi une ablation partielle de l’estomac pour cancer, et chez celles traitées au long cours par certains médicaments anti-acide, les IPP (inhibiteurs de la pompe à protons). La lésion peut être retirée par endoscopie Si le cancer gastrique a un pronostic médiocre, c’est d’abord à cause de son diagnostic tardif, les cancers précoces ne donnant pas de symptômes. Parfois, une lésion précoce est découverte par des signes très généraux comme une anémie. «Mais le plus souvent ils sont détectés à un stade évolué, parce que surviennent une hémorragie digestive, des douleurs qui ressemblent à un ulcère, un amaigrissement, des difficultés d’alimentation… C’est l’examen endoscopique et la biopsie des lésions qui confirment ce diagnostic, explique le Pr Thomas Aparicio, gastro-entérologue et cancérologue (hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris). Si la lésion est petite et superficielle, elle est parfois enlevée par endoscopie dans des centres très expérimentés. Mais la laparoscopie est moins utilisée que dans le cancer du côlon, et l’ablation chirurgicale se fait le plus souvent en ouvrant l’abdomen.» Le principal progrès de ces quinze dernières années dans l’amélioration de la survie, c’est la chimiothérapie périopératoire, avec en général deux mois de chimiothérapie préopératoire pour réduire la tumeur et éliminer les micrométastases, et deux mois de chimiothérapie postopératoire. Les 30 % de cancers métastatiques d’emblée ne sont pas opérés. Comme pour d’autres tumeurs, ces formes métastatiques commencent à bénéficier des avancées des thérapies ciblées et de l’immunothérapie. Mais, globalement, les progrès sont modestes et les essais souvent décevants. «Notre arme principale reste la détection, le plus précoce possible, qui a un peu progressé puisqu’on identifie 10 % de cancers superficiels précoces, contre 4 % il y a dix ans», insiste le Pr Matysiak-Budnik. De nouveaux tests en cours d’évaluation pourraient aider à améliorer ce dépistage…
Dans le monde, l’espérance de vie s’allonge, mais la mauvaise alimentation est responsable de près d’un décès sur 5. Bonne nouvelle : dans le monde, l’espérance de vie s’allonge et la mortalité infantile baisse, selon une étude coordonnée par l’Institut de mesure et d’évaluation de la santé à l’Université de Washington à Seattle (IHME), publiée vendredi, qui compile des données de 195 pays et territoires. L’étude a également exploré les causes de décès dans le monde. Allongement de la durée de vie En un demi-siècle, l’espérance de vie moyenne tous sexes confondus a augmenté de 14 ans: elle est aujourd’hui de 72,5 ans (75,3 ans chez les femmes, et 69,8 ans chez les hommes), contre 58,4 ans en 1970. C’est le Japon qui détient le record de l’espérance de vie moyenne la plus élevée, 83,9 ans pour les deux sexes combinés. La Centrafrique a la plus basse, 50,2 ans en moyenne. «Les gens vivent plus longtemps», se réjouit le Dr Christopher Murray, directeur de l’IHME. Il ajoute avoir constaté avec ses collègues au cours de la dernière décennie des «progrès importants», comme la baisse de la mortalité infantile et du paludisme. En effet, les décès d’enfants de moins de 5 ans sont passés pour la première fois en dessous de 5 millions en 2016, trois fois moins qu’il y a 50 ans (16,4 millions en 1970). Un décès sur cinq dans le monde serait lié à une mauvaise alimentation De nombreuses données de l’étude pointent toutefois les problèmes liés au mode de vie, en particulier à une mauvaise alimentation. Sur les 54,7 millions de décès constatés en 2016 dans le monde, 72% sont causés par des maladies non transmissibles (affections cardiovasculaires, diabète) souvent liées au mode de vie: alimentation, sédentarité, tabac, alcool, etc. Près d’un décès sur cinq serait provoqué par une mauvaise alimentation, en particulier celle pauvre en céréales complètes, fruits et légumes, noix et poissons. Les auteurs soulignent que parmi toutes les formes de malnutrition, les mauvaises habitudes alimentaires représentent le principal risque de mortalité. L’alimentation trop salée est par exemple associée à un peu plus de dix millions de décès (18,8%) dans le monde. Il n’est donc pas étonnant que parmi les dix principaux facteurs de risque de décès on retrouve l’obésité, un excès de cholestérol sanguin, et une glycémie (taux de sucre dans le sang) et une pression artérielle élevées. Le tabac est lui responsable d’un peu plus de 7 millions de décès.
Paludisme, vaccination et trousse à pharmacie, pour éviter les risques de maladies pendant un voyage il est vital de bien se préparer. À l'approche des vacances d'été, il est important de rappeler que voyager n'est pas sans danger. D'après le dernier rapport de l'Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS), paru le 9 juin dernier, le risque de décès dans le cadre d'un voyage est estimé dans le monde à 1/100.000 par mois. Si ce taux de mortalité peut être considéré comme faible, le risque de contracter une maladie est en revanche beaucoup plus important: il varie de 15 % à 70 % en fonction de la destination, des conditions de séjour et des antécédents médicaux du voyageur. Parmi les maladies les plus fréquemment contractées, la diarrhée devance les infections des voies aériennes supérieures, les dermatoses et la fièvre. Quelques précautions comme la vaccination et une bonne hygiène peuvent radicalement diminuer les risques de contracter ces maladies. Selon l'InVS, quelques points méritent une attention particulière pour mieux voyager cette année: • Le paludisme: une maladie importée en augmentation Le paludisme, transmit par les moustiques, se caractérise par la manifestation d'épisodes aigus de fièvre avec des conséquences parfois mortelles. En France, le rapport de l'InVS évoque une augmentation de 8 % du nombre de cas en 2014 par rapport à 2013, avec 2.299 nouveaux malades. Contrairement au reste du monde où le nombre de contaminés a baissé de 30 % entre les années 2000 et 2013. Pour les autorités sanitaires, cette augmentation s'explique en partie par les opérations militaires à l'étranger, mais aussi par le nombre croissant des cas d'importation parmi la population. Le paludisme sévit principalement dans les zones tropicales, subtropicales ou tempérées chaudes d'Asie, d'Amérique latine et du Moyen-Orient. Cette maladie qui, au niveau mondiale, tue plus de personnes que le sida ne bénéficie d'aucun traitement assurant une protection totale. Pourtant, la prise préventive et journalière de médicaments antipaludiques - non remboursés et délivrés sur ordonnance - ainsi que l'utilisation de moustiquaires et de produits répulsifs ou d'insecticides, permettent de réduire les risques de contamination. • La diarrhée du voyageur: la maladie la plus répandue Le risque de diarrhée peut dépasser les 50 % pour un séjour de trois semaines et se guérit en 1 à 3 jours dans les cas les plus bénins. L'origine de l'infections peut être virale (rotavirus), bactérienne (Escherichia coli) ou parasitaire (Giardia intestinalis). En cas de diarrhée, il est recommandé de boire abondamment des liquides salés et sucrés en alternance et/ou d'utiliser des sels de réhydratation orale (sachets à diluer) pour éviter une perte importante de sels minéraux. Les précautions à prendre sont avant tout des mesures basiques d'hygiène : se laver souvent les mains et consommer de l'eau en bouteille capsulée. Pendant un voyage, le corps n'est pas habitué aux produits locaux: les autorités sanitaires préconisent donc d'éviter les glaçons, les jus de fruits frais, les crudités, les coquillages et de bien cuire les aliments. • Respecter les vaccinations: un rempart contre la plupart des maladies La plupart des maladies liées aux voyages peuvent être prévenues par la vaccination. Pour l'administration du vaccin et des conseils, il vaut mieux se tourner vers son médecin traitant ou vers un centre des voyageurs. - Vaccins nécessaires en France: vérifier la mise à jour des vaccins est essentiel avant de planifier un départ pour des maladies comme la diphtérie, le tétanos, la poliomyélite, la coqueluche et la rougeole. D'autres vaccins plus circonstanciels comme la grippe, l'hépatite A et les pneumocoques sont recommandés si l'on doit côtoyer des foules. - Vaccins nécessaires à l'étranger: ces recommandations dépendent des régions du monde, des conditions de séjour et des facteurs de risque individuels (âge, antécédents médicaux…). Les autorités sanitaires du pays peuvent demander un certificat de vaccination pour l'entrée sur le territoire: international pour des maladies comme la fièvre jaune, ou national pour des infections à méningocoques dans les pèlerinages en Arabie Saoudite. • Les comportements à risque: des conséquences parfois mortelles - Risques sexuels : différents types de maladies peuvent êtres contractés par voie sexuelle: qu'elles soient mortelles et incurables comme le VIH et l'hépatite B ou curables mais hautement contagieuses comme la syphilis, gonococcie, l'herpès etc. - Risques du tourisme médical : dans la plupart des pays aux structures sanitaires insuffisantes, les transfusions sanguines présentent un risque de transmission d'agents pathogènes allant des hépatites B et C jusqu'au VIH. Une hospitalisation peut, dans les pays en développement, provoquer des infections nosocomiales à partir de bactéries multirésistantes comme le staphylocoque doré. - Risques liés aux tatouages et piercing : ils présentent un risque majeur de transmission par le sang d'agents pathogènes des hépatites B et C et du VIH. - Risques liés aux drogues : en plus de favoriser une potentielle contamination par le sang, intoxication ou trouble du comportement, la juridiction de certains pays peut entraîner une condamnation à la peine de mort. • Trousse à pharmacie: prendre soins de ses médicaments Même si la composition de la trousse à pharmacie varie selon la destination et les pathologies personnelles, quelques conseils peuvent être appliqués. Ainsi les médicaments doivent être: dans leur emballage pour éviter les erreurs, accompagnés des ordonnances pour les contrôles et un éventuel achat sur place. Mieux vaut éviter des médicaments sous formes liquides ou en suppositoire. Ils doivent être préservés des variations de température dans un contenant hermétique, accompagnés d'un certificat en règle pour être acceptés en cabine sous forme de seringues, d'aiguilles ou de stylos injecteurs. Enfin, il est nécessaire de prévoir des doses pour tout le voyage, à garder dans le bagage à main, afin d'éviter d'acheter des contrefaçons, nombreuses dans certains pays.
Women who regularly eat fast food and don’t consume enough fruit are more likely to experience problems trying to conceive, a study suggests. The study of 5,598 women in Australia, New Zealand, the UK and Ireland, which was published in the journal Human Reproduction, found that women who ate fast food four or more times a week took almost a month longer to get pregnant than those who rarely or never ate it. Furthermore, women who regularly eat junk food were also less likely to conceive within a year. Women who had eaten fruit three or more times a day, on average, conceived half a month quicker than those who had eaten it less than one to three times a month. While experts say the study suggests a good diet boosts the chances of getting pregnant, some limitations - including the participants having to remember what they’d eaten in the month before conceiving - have been highlighted. Prof Claire Roberts, from the University of Adelaide, Australia, who led the study, said: "These findings show that eating a good quality diet that includes fruit and minimising fast food consumption improves fertility and reduces the time it takes to get pregnant." [Related reading: UK hit by weight-related fatty liver disease epidemic]
From Friday, drinks manufacturers in the UK will have to pay a levy on the high-sugar drinks they sell, following the implementation of the ground-breaking sugar tax in the country. While ministers and campaigners say the tax is already driving positive results, with many manufacturers cutting the amount of sugar in their drinks ahead of the change, others say it’s still too early to tell. Indeed, while Fanta, Ribena and Lucozade have cut the sugar content of their drinks, Coca-Cola hasn’t. The UK joins a small handful of countries, including France, Mexico and Norway, which have introduced similar taxes in an attempt to reduce sugar consumption. Manufacturers will need to pay the levy – equivalent to 24p per litre - on any of their drinks that contain more than 8g per 100ml. It is not yet known whether the costs will be passed on to consumers in the form of price increases. Drinks containing 5-8g of sugar per 100ml will be subject to a lower rate of tax of 18p per litre. Pure fruit juices that do not contain any added sugar will be exempt, as are drinks with high milk content (due to the beneficial calcium they contain). The new tax is expected to raise around £240 million a year, which will be invested in schools sports and breakfast clubs.
A study by Public Health England looking at the heart health of the nation has found that thousands of men face early death at the hands of a heart attack or stroke. In fact, according to the analysis of 1.2 million people, one in 10 British men has a heart age that’s a decade older than their actual age. Heart disease is the main cause of death among men and the second among women. Public Health England says that 7,400 people will die from heart disease or stroke this month alone. However, most of these deaths are preventable and Public Health England says that just a few small lifestyle changes can have a positive impact. One of the suggestions made was for over 50s to get their blood pressure regularly checked as high blood pressure can be an early sign of a potentially life-threatening condition. Public Health England’s head of cardiovascular disease, Jamie Waterall, urged people not to only start considering their heart health later in life. "Addressing our risk of heart disease and stroke should not be left until we are older", he said. How to improve your heart health: Give up smoking Get active Manage your weight Eat more fibre Eat five portions of fruit and vegetables per day Cut down on saturated fat Cut down on salt Drink less alcohol
People who eat browned toast, chips and potatoes could be increasing their risk of cancer, according to the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA). That's because the chemical acrylamide - which is known to be toxic to DNA and cause cancer in animals - is produced when starchy foods are roasted, fried or grilled for too long at high temperatures. For example, when bread is warmed to make toast the sugar, amino acids and water present in it combine to create colour and acrylamide. The darker the colour of the toast, the more acrylamide is present. The FSA admits that it does not know exactly how much acrylamide can be tolerated by people, but it does believe we are all eating too much of it. As a result, the FSA has launched a new campaign advising people to make some small changes to the way they prepare and cook food: Always aim for a golden yellow colour when toasting, frying, baking, or roasting starchy foods like potatoes, bread and root vegetables Store raw potatoes in a cool, dark place above 6C and not in the fridge. Carefully follow cooking instructions when heating oven chips, pizzas, roast potatoes and parsnips Make sure you eat a healthy, balanced diet which includes five portions of fruit and vegetables per day, as well as starchy carbohydrates In addition to the campaign, the FSA is also working with the food industry to reduce the amount of acrylamide found in processed food. Steve Wearne, director of policy at the FSA, said most people were not aware that acrylamide even existed. "We want our campaign to highlight the issue so that consumers know how to make the small changes that may reduce their acrylamide consumption whilst still eating plenty of starchy carbohydrates and vegetables as recommended in government healthy eating advice."
Great news for fans of spicy food as research finds a link between eating red hot chilli peppers and a longer lifespan. The study of more than 16,000 people living in the United States found that those who ate red hot chilli peppers - ranging from a single chilli to several chillies every day - had a 13% lower risk of death from all causes compared to individuals who didn't eat them. Study co-authors Mustafa Chopan and Benjamin Littenberg, both from the Robert Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont, recently published their findings in the journal PLOS One. While it still hasn't been determined exactly why chilli peppers might extend lifespan, the researchers believe it is likely down to capsaicin, which activities transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Capsaicin is also where chilli peppers get their distinctive fiery flavour. There are many different types of chilli pepper, all with varying levels of heat. They are the fruits of the Capsicum plant, which belongs to the nightshade family. Capsaicin is also believed to have anti-inflammatory and/or anti-oxidant effects, as well as helping to boost the metabolism, which can help combat obesity. The team says that further study is needed to investigate the benefits of other spices and differential effects of certain chilli pepper sub-types, which "may lead to new insights into the relationships between diet and health, updated dietary recommendations, and the development of new therapies."
It's the third Thursday in November and that means only one thing here in France: Beaujolais Nouveau. Today traditionally marks the end of the grape harvest in France and since 1201 am people will have been able to get their hands on the first Beaujolais Nouveau of the year. The timestamp is significant as there's actually a law in France preventing Beaujolais Nouveau from being sold any earlier. It's an occasion that's traditionally accompanied by huge parties all over France, and this year is sure to be no different. In fact, Beaujolais Nouveau Day, as it's known, is celebrated worldwide. Many stores and restaurants in the US, UK and other countries will be scrabbling to arrange their stocks of this year's wine, which they'll have taken delivery of prior to today's launch. Beaujolais Nouveau (pronounced bow-jah-lay new-vo), as its name suggests, comes from the Beaujolais region of France. It's a typically sweet and fruity wine made from the Gamay grape, and unlike most wines, it's meant to be consumed not long after it's been produced. People also prefer it to be a little cooler than other wines. Fans of the wine in Japan have even been known to bathe in it, as you can see from the picture at the top of this post. If that's not a ringing endorsement then we don't know what is...
A report from the World Health Organisation (WHO) shows that the global body has added its support to countries that place a "sugar tax" on soft drinks. It's the first time the WHO has thrown its support behind taxation. Previously, it had stopped short, simply advising a lower sugar intake. Several countries, including Mexico and Hungary, already tax added sugar products, and South Africa is introducing a sugar tax next year - the only country in Africa to do so. The WHO said that incidences of obesity, diabetes and tooth decay can be lowered if people lower their consumption of "free sugars". Free sugars are all the different types of sugar people eat, except for the ones found naturally in milk and fruit. Dr Francesco Branca, nutrition director for the WHO, said that people should keep their sugar intake below 10% of their total calorie intake, and below 5% if possible. "Nutritionally, people don't need any sugar in their diet," he said. The WHO report found that raising prices by 20% or more leads to lower consumption and "improved nutrition". It also noted that government subsidies for fruit and vegetables, which inevitably lead to lower prices, can have a positive impact on the amount people consume.
A new study has found the typical "social business diet", which consists heavily of red meats, sweet drinks, processed snacks and alcohol, has a detrimental effect on a person's heart. Unfortunately, it's a sign of the times that many individuals do not have, or at least don't think they have, enough time to sit down and eat a healthy meal. Instead, many people rely on grab-and-go food items that can be eaten on the road. However, according to a team of researchers from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City, eating habits such as these up the risks of atherosclerosis - a slow, but steady clogging of one's arteries. In fact, eating out, snacking on the go, and excessive alcohol consumption is more unhealthy than the so-called Western diet. "This business diet is really very bad," said Dr. Valentin Fuster, a cardiology professor from Icahn. "It hits the arteries hard, and strongly contributes to cardiovascular disease risk, the world's number one killer," he added. The American Heart Association says that cardiovascular disease accounts for more than 17 million deaths across the world each year. Atherosclerosis occurs when plaque builds up in a person's arteries, and can raise their risk of blood clots, heart attacks, heart disease and stroke. If people want to lower their risk of cardiovascular problems in the future, they should minimise their consumption of red meat, sweets and alocohol, and increase their intake of vegetables, fruits, low-fat dairy products, whole grains, fish and nuts.
Tests in fruit flies and mice have shown that artificial sweeteners activate hunger pathways, which boost appetite and send the body into "feed me" mode. Reporting their findings in the journal Cell Metabolism, the Australian researchers said that more work is needed to see if the same is true in humans, and whether the billions of people who consume sugar substitutes experience similar reactions. For the study, the researchers looked at how the brain signals of the insects and rodents changed as what they were fed was restricted. Some fruit flies and mice were given a diet containing natural sugars, while others ate the same, but with added low-calorie artificial sweeteners. The researchers found that the brains of the subjects consuming the sugar substitutes compensated whenever sweetness and energy was out of balance by sending signals in a bid to boost calorie consumption. The result was that when given the chance, the insects and rodents ate more. Researcher Professor Greg Neely, from the University of Sydney, said: "When we investigated why animals were eating more even though they had enough calories, we found that chronic consumption of this artificial sweetener actually increases the sweet intensity of real nutritive sugar, and this then increases the animal's overall motivation to eat more food." However, UK nutritionists have said that the same is not necessarily true in humans and that low-calorie sweetened foods are better for people's teeth than sugar and can help keep weight off. The researchers have also agreed that more investigations are needed to see whether similar effects are seen in humans.
Last year, we told you about the benefits to your gut of following a Mediterranean diet. Now, research published in the European Heart Journal says that a Mediterranean diet is better for people with heart disease than avoiding what's considered unhealthy in the so-called 'Western diet'. The new research shows that a Mediterranean diet, which includes large amounts of fruit, vegetables, fish and unrefined foods, can decrease the risk of stroke and heart attack in people who already have heart disease. Likewise, the study found that avoiding the unhealthy aspects of a Western diet, such as sweets, sugary drinks and deep-fried foods, also reduced a person's risk of cardiac issues. For the study, researchers from Auckland City Hospital at the University of Auckland in New Zealand analysed the dietary data of some 15,482 people with stable coronary artery disease across 39 countries globally. They found that fewer heart attacks and strokes were witnessed among those people who eat Mediterranean foods. In fact, for every 100 people eating Mediterranean foods, there were three fewer strokes, heart attacks or deaths than seen among the 100 people who consumed the least amount of healthy foods. Lead researcher Prof. Ralph Stewart said: "The research suggests we should place more emphasis on encouraging people with heart disease to eat more healthy foods, and perhaps focus less on avoiding unhealthy foods."
Many parents try to prevent their kids from consuming too many soft drinks and opt instead for 'healthy' smoothies and natural fruit juices. But new research published in the online journal BMJ Open, shows that many of these so-called healthy options can contain as much as 13mg/100ml of sugar, which is the equivalent of 2.5 tsps in a 3.5oz serving - roughly two-thirds of a child's recommended daily intake. In fact, the research paper goes so far as to describe the sugar levels found in some natural juices, smoothies and fruit drinks as "unacceptably high". The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends no more than 3-4 tsps of sugar per day for children and 5 tsps for teenagers. It's a similar story in the UK, where NHS guidelines state no more than 4 tsps for children (aged 4-6) and 5 tsps at age 7-1o. However, according to Yale Health, the average American consumes a whopping 22 tsps of added sugar every single day. For teenagers, this figure is even higher at 34 tsps. Is it any surprise, though, when you consider that a single can of soda contains around 10 tsps alone. The researchers from the Universities of Liverpool and London in the UK found that 40% of the 203 products they analysed contained more than 4 tsps of sugar; made up largely of "free" sugars - those added by the drink producer and not occurring naturally. However, when quizzed about his team's findings, Dr. Simon Capewell's advice was that people shouldn't reduce their fruit intake. "No. Fruit is very good for the health. Vegetables likewise. Indeed, we would recommend unlimited fruit and vegetables," he said. The team does recommend consuming fruit whole, though, and not just in juice form.
The benefits of following a Mediterranean diet have long been advocated by the people who live there, but now new research suggests that it may be true as the region’s food and drink regimen may boost levels of beneficial fatty acids. Produced by bacteria when fibre from dietary plant matter is fermented in the intestine, these so-called “short-chain fatty acids” (SCFAs) are believed to afford a number of health benefits, including a lower risk of diabetes, heart disease and inflammatory disease, according to the research which was recently published in the journal Gut. “We provide here tangible evidence of the impact of a healthy diet and a Mediterranean dietary pattern,” wrote the team headed up by Danilo Ercolini, a professor of microbiology at the University of Naples in Italy. The study, which focused on the dietary habits of 153 Italian adults, found higher levels of SCFAs in individuals who were vegans, vegetarians and those who followed a Mediterranean diet, including plenty of fibre-rich fruits, vegetables and legumes. While levels of SCFAs can vary naturally according to a person’s age and gender, the findings of the study definitely suggest that a high-fibre diet also boosts them. “The take-away message from this study is to head to your local farmers market, let the produce fill your plate and only use animal-based proteins as condiments,” said Nancy Copperman, director of public health initiatives at North Shore-LIJ Health System in Great Neck, N.Y.
Protein is made from amino acids, which are also known as the building blocks of muscle. Therefore, the importance of protein in our diets is huge. Without it, we wouldn’t be able to build, repair or even maintain our muscles. Furthermore, following surgery, many patients often need to eat protein to help with their recoveries. It aids the healing process and boosts the reparation of muscles. But with more and more people trying to limit the amount of meat they consume and with eggs – particularly in the US – becoming increasingly expensive, obtaining protein from other sources has become very significant; especially for breakfast, as a protein hit in the morning can really set you up for the day. With that in mind, here are five protein-packed alternatives to a meaty or eggy breakfast: Spicy Bean Burrito Grab a tortilla (preferably wholegrain) and stuff it with half a cup of black beans, a quarter of a cup of diced avocado, salsa and grated cheddar cheese (optional). Approx. 15g protein. Peanut Butter Oatmeal Combine half a cup of cooked oats with one cup of dairy or soy milk. Then add two tablespoons (the big ones) of peanut butter. Approx. 21g protein. Chickpea Scramble Mash up about one cup of chickpeas and then cook them on a skillet with spinach and other seasonal vegetables you fancy, ‘scrambling’ it throughout. Approx. 15g protein. Fruit & Nut Quinoa Bowl Throw one cup of cooked quinoa into a saucepan with half a cup of dairy or soy milk and heat. Then add two tablespoons of chopped nuts, sliced banana or berries. Approx. 15g protein. White Bean & Avocado on Toast Put a quarter of a cup of avocado and half a cup of white beans into a bowl and mash. Lightly toast a slice of wholegrain bread and spread the mixture over the top. Add herbs to garnish. Approx. 14g protein. Photo credit: Blisstree
When it comes to deciphering which bug is responsible for an infection, doctors have historically faced many challenges. While routine tests are available, they can sometimes take days to definitively identify the exact bug and usually involve growing cultures in a laboratory. But now, a new blood test has been developed that can determine whether an infection is being caused by bacteria or a virus and the results are available within two hours. Despite still being at a laboratory stage, the potential of the new test has got independent experts excited and if it comes to fruition, it could help tackle a very serious problem: the over-reliance on antibiotics. MeMed worked in collaboration with several teams of scientists from Israel to develop the test and it proved successful - i.e. it correctly identified the cause of an infection – in the majority of some 300 tests cases. The new test works by recognising the protein patterns triggered by viruses and bacteria, but isn’t being seen as a replacement for the traditional role of a physician and their judgement. Virus expert Professor Jonathan Ball from Nottingham University said: "The work addresses a really serious problem. Being able to identify a possible infection early on and then to be able to differentiate between a possible viral or bacterial cause, is important.”
Last Thursday saw the official uncorking of this year’s Beaujolais Nouveau – an event that left many people across the world very happy indeed. Beaujolais Nouveau is a very young and fruity red wine which is released annually every third Thursday of November at midnight. The occasion is celebrated with parties, fireworks and other merriment. Produced in the Beaujolais region of France, Beaujolais Nouveau is designed to be drunk soon and with gusto. But how can that be achieved if you’re a wine lover living on the other side of the world? Well quite easily as it happens; especially when 2,000 tonnes of the stuff was flown to Asia on six Boeing 747 airplanes this month. According to Parisian customs, Cathay Pacific loaded six of its biggest planes with Beaujolais Nouveau and sent them bound for Hong Kong; where the precious cargo could then be distributed to other countries in the region. This meant that even wine lovers in Asia could enjoy a glass of this year’s Beaujolais Nouveau on Thursday too. Japanese people, especially, are big Beaujolais Nouveau fans and quaffed more than eight million bottles of it in 2013 alone. It highlights how highly revered French wine is and shows why France has recently regained its top wine producer crown having played second fiddle to Italy for a few years. With this year’s Beaujolais Nouveau now on sale, it’s the perfect time to consider a trip to France for surgery with us.
Any type of surgery, whether minimally invasive or more drastic in nature, will leave your body needing a certain period of time to recover. And during this recovery period it is important that you take good care of your wounds by changing dressings where necessary and taking any medication prescribed as part of your post-surgery care. However, many people don’t realise that the foods you eat following surgery can also have a significant effect on your recovery. Here are 5 top foods that should definitely be part of your post-surgery diet: High fibre foods Foods that are high in fibre aren’t just healthy but they also help to prevent constipation. Eat whole grain cereals, bread, fruits and vegetables to aid your recovery. Lean protein Protein is the building block of muscles and it’s therefore important to get a decent supply following surgery. Choose turkey, pork and chicken if you’re a meat eater or tofu, soy and beans if you’re not. Fresh fruit and vegetables As well as being a great source of fibre, fruit and vegetables contain key vitamins and minerals, plus immune boosting antioxidants. Consume dark green, leafy vegetables like broccoli and spinach. Low-fat dairy products Some people may advise against dairy products because of their tendency to sometimes cause constipation. This shouldn’t be an issue, however, if you’re eating lots of fibre too. The high levels of calcium and protein make dairy products great additions during your recovery period. Low-fat yogurts and cottage cheese are the order of the day. High-calorie foods That’s right, while the dieting world is telling us to consume less calories, the opposite is true following surgery. After all, your body is healing and needs all the energy it can get. A well-balanced diet is the key to a speedy recovery. And what better place to recover and eat yourself healthy than in a country famed for its cuisine like France. Photo Credit: Flickr
Many people follow strict eating regimes before any surgery, be it minor or major. However, few people realise that what you eat after surgery is just as important. This is because surgery is a major trauma on our bodies and as such, they have to significantly repair themselves following any surgical procedure. This is why it’s vital that you give your body everything it needs during this crucial healing stage. Many people think that because they will inevitably be inactive following surgery they should reduce their calorie intake. The opposite, however, is often true and post-surgery patients need additional essential calories and nutrients to facilitate the reparation process. Protein It’s important that you follow a balanced diet after surgery, but one of the key components of this has to be protein. Muscles are often damaged or disturbed during surgery and need protein in order to heal. That’s why it’s important to fill your diet with foods like poultry, meat, fish, eggs, yogurt, cheese, beans and nuts. Alternatively, you can use protein supplements to boost your intake and aid the muscle healing process. Vitamins Furthermore, there are a number of vitamins that are vital for the healing process. For example, vitamin C aids in soft tissue repair and vitamin E is important in antioxidant defence. Some individuals may be prescribed vitamin supplements by their medical professional, but the best source, of course, is from food. Almonds, wheat germ, peanuts, sunflower seeds and plant oils are all loaded with vitamin E, while strawberries, citrus fruits, kiwi, Brussels sprouts, broccoli and bell peppers contain high levels of vitamin C. Whatever your surgery, it’s important that you don’t shy away from food. The surgeons have done their bit and now it’s time for you to do yours. Photo credit: © NOBU - Fotolia.com
Christmas is a time of over-indulgence where people eat, drink and generally be merry. Of course there is nothing wrong with this but if you choose not to look after yourself this Christmas then your New Year might not get off to a very healthy start. Follow these tips to ensure you have fun but stay healthy this Christmas: Drink enough water – remaining hydrated is key to staying healthy. If you choose to drink alcohol over Christmas then keeping your water levels up is particularly important. Get enough sleep – 7-8 hours of sleep is generally the recommended amount. Even if you are enjoying the party season make sure you catch up on your sleep the next day to remain fresh and healthy. Relax – most people have some time off work over Christmas so use it to relax and de-stress so that you can return to work feeling rejuvenated and ready to take on the new year. Watch what you eat – Christmas can appear to be about sweets, chocolate and puddings but remember to eat your fair share of fruit and pile up the vegetables on your Christmas dinner so you can make sure you don’t leave your body feeling sluggish. Photo credit: Flickr