The NHS is celebrating its 75th anniversary this month. The UK’s healthcare system, which treats around 1.3 million people a day just in England, has been at the core of public health since 1948. However, new government figures reveal just over half of Brits (53.9%) are happy with the UK’s health system and 9% fewer people are satisfied with their own health than when the survey started in 2010. The UK Measures of National Well-being Dashboard from the Office for National Statistics (ONS), shows Brits feel their general wellbeing has declined in recent years. As the NHS celebrates a milestone, only half of the UK’s population are happy with the healthcare system. Furthermore, the percentage of UK adults who are mostly or completely satisfied with their health has declined 8.6% since the first such poll in 2010. Meanwhile, reported evidence of depression or anxiety was 23.7% between 2020 and 2021, the highest it has been since 2009-2010. Tim Vizard, from the ONS, said: “We have been exploring people’s wellbeing for over a decade now to understand how society is changing and what matters most to people. “A lot has changed over the last 10 years, including most recently the coronavirus pandemic and increases to the cost of living. Today we have published new insights to reflect what matters to people across the UK. “Measuring how we are doing as a society goes beyond economic measures and capturing this is a vital part of our work, looking beyond measures such as GDP.” We wrote back in January about how an increasing number of Brits are resorting to medical treatment abroad amid long NHS waiting lists. The latest ONS figures provide further insights into why this may be the case. *Image by Parentingupstream from Pixabay
It's become a ubiquitous part of most people's lives, but social media could be driving feelings of anxiety and depression, and taking a break from it for just one week can be beneficial, new research shows. According to the study, which is published in the journal Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, people who stopped using social media platforms such as TikTok, Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook for seven days reported an increased sense of well-being. Moreover, some said they got back around nine hours in their week that they would have otherwise spent scrolling such platforms. “Scrolling social media is so ubiquitous that many of us do it almost without thinking from the moment we wake up to when we close our eyes at night,” Jeff Lambert, the lead study author and a health and exercise psychologist at the University of Bath, said in a statement. “We know that social media usage is huge and that there are increasing concerns about its mental health effects,” he said. “We wanted to see whether simply asking people to take a week’s break could yield mental health benefits.” The researchers now want to investigate whether other groups can benefit from taking social media breaks, including younger people and those with physical and mental health conditions. The team also wants to monitor individuals for longer than a week to see if the benefits last over time. If the results do indeed last, the study authors say we might even see social media breaks being prescribed as an option for people dealing with mental health issues. *Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay
People who suffer with stress and anxiety could realise heart health benefits through regular exercise, new research has found. According to the study by res earchers at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, regular physical activity among individuals with depression or anxiety had nearly double the cardiovascular benefit than in people without such diagnoses. The study found that, people who accomplished the recommended amount of physical activity per week – 150 minutes, according to he American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association – were 17 per cent less likely to suffer a major adverse cardiovascular event than those who exercised less. However, of those who achieved the recommended amount of physical activity per week, individuals with anxiety or depression had a 22 per cent risk reduction versus a 10 per cent among those without either condition. The analysis included more than 50,000 patients in the Massachusetts General Brigham Biobank database. Just over 4,000 of the patients analyzed had suffered a major cardiovascular event, like a heart attack, chest pain caused by a blocked artery, or underwent a procedure to open a blocked artery in the heart. Commenting on the study's findings, Michael Emery, MD, who is the co-director of the Sports Cardiology Center at Cleveland Clinic in Ohio, and was not involved in the study, said: “Exercise is medicine both physically and psychologically, and these factors interplay such that when you are more physically healthy your psychological state is more robust, and when you are mentally more healthy your physical state is improved.” *Image by StockSnap from Pixabay
The unprecedented events of the last two years have certainly taken their toll on people's mental health. An ongoing health pandemic, disrupted lives and sporadic lockdowns have led to heightened levels of stress and anxiety. Now, new research reveals how owning a dog can has been beneficial to many people's mental health during the COVID-19 outbreak. According to the study by a team of researchers from Nestlé Purina Research in Saint-Louis in Missouri, United States, dog owners reported less depression and felt they had more social support compared with a control group during the COVID-19 pandemic. Speaking with Medical News Today, Dr. Francois Martin, lead author and section leader of the Behavior and Welfare Group at Nestlé Purina Research, said: “The context of the COVID-19 pandemic offered a unique opportunity to better understand how dogs may provide social support for their owners, buffer heightened symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression, and contribute to happiness.” The researchers say their study shows that owning a dog helped protect pet owners from some of the negative psychological impacts of the pandemic. They also say that it adds to the scientific evidence that dogs provide positive support to their owners during hard times. “We also found that dog owners had significantly lower depression scores than potential dog owners, but the two groups had similar anxiety and happiness scores,” Dr. Martin added. The results from this observational study appear in the journal PLOS ONE. *Image by Sven Lachmann from Pixabay
French President Emmanuel Macron has announced that the state will fund psychology appointments in the country starting next year. Speaking about the policy on Tuesday, President Macron acknowledged the psychological impact of government Covid restrictions, as well as past failures to make mental health a priority. President Macron announced several measures during a conference with professionals who work in the sector. As the coronavirus proliferated across France, “we didn't want to see the importance of mental health, and we got hit in the face with the fact that health is all-encompassing,” Macron said. “The consequences of the pandemic are just as tangible in mental health” as in physical health. He highlighted a spike in the number of children seeking psychological treatment, as well as a growing number of attempted suicides, notably among teenagers. According to President Macron, around 20% of French people suffer from depression, Under the new plans, free therapy sessions for children and young adults -- which were announced earlier this year -- will be extended to everyone with a doctor’s prescription. Psychiatric treatment is already largely reimbursed by the state. State healthcare systems in Britain, Germany and some other countries already fund therapy sessions. French health professionals say a national effort to improve access is long overdue, especially as the coronavirus pandemic has caused and aggravated psychological distress. *Image by mohamed Hassan from Pixabay
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has just released the Rural Action Plan, the first HHS-wide assessment of rural healthcare efforts in more than 18 years. The 82-page report comes after President Trump’s executive order in August to improve rural health and telehealth access. It lays out a four-point plan intended to address challenges providing rural healthcare, including building a sustainable HHS model for rural communities; preventing disease and mortality; increasing rural access to care; and using technology and innovation. The latter of these four initiatives includes wider support for telehealth, as well as funding for the development of technological solutions to help with chronic conditions. It also acknowledges that broadband access is a continuing concern for making use of health IT. Specifically, the report highlights a number of projects and directives designed to boost telehealth, including: - Grants, policy and regulatory efforts and research analyses will support rural tech and telehealth innovation initiatives. - A health challenge that uses technology to improve screening and management of postpartum depression for rural women. - HHS will provide more than $8 million in grant funding to boost telehealth expansion. - About $30 million to expand the use of telehealth services to meet the needs of rural and medically underserved areas. - Investment aimed at expanding eligibility to telehealth sites where the provider sees the patient at a distance more healthcare provider types.
Americans have more than 600,000 knee replacements every year and that number is expected to increase to 1.28 million by 2030, according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS). But despite the high numbers, many individuals wait too long to undergo surgery, and can miss out on some of the potential benefits, a new report reveals. The report, published in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery in January, 2020, shows that 83% of patients with osteoarthritis in their knees wait too long to have a replacement. As a result, these patients don’t get as much function back after surgery as patients who undergo a knee replacement in a timely fashion. Furthermore, patients who wait too long to have knee surgery also place themselves at risk of developing other health conditions like depression. This is due to the fact their mobility is severely hindered, making exercise and physical activity difficult. But having knee replacement surgery too early can also lead to issues. By having knee replacement surgery too soon, patients put themselves at risk for complications and may need a revision surgery later in life. Revisions are typically more difficult and can result in poorer outcomes. The study highlights just how important it is to consult a medical professional when you are experiencing problems with your knees and undergo surgery in a timely fashion. For more information on how France Surgery can facilitate knee replacement surgery for you right here in France, contact us today.
While exercise has long been thought to help boost mental health and there’s evidence to support this, less is known about whether physical activity can actually prevent the onset of mental health conditions such as anxiety and depression. Indeed, previous studies have suggested that low levels of physical activity are associated with a greater incidence of several common mental health problems, but few studies have investigated whether the opposite is true: more exercise = less risk of developing mental health disorders – until now. By conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of four different studies, the researchers from University College London were able to assess the impact of physical exercise on mental health risk. Publishing their findings in the Journal of Affective Disorders, the researchers said low and medium levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with a 47% and 23% greater risk of common mental health disorders, compared with high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. In other words, doing more physical exercise does seem to have a positive impact on a person's mental health risk. The research makes for interesting reading when you consider that mental health issues are growing and not everyone benefits from therapies and medication. The researchers are now planning to explore this avenue further to see if they can identify the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between exercise and mental health.
Eating chocolate makes us feel good, right? But is there actually any evidence that it can combat conditions like depression? Well, a new survey-based study of over 13,000 people suggests there is, but only if you eat dark chocolate. Having analysed data from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the researchers concluded that there was no link between eating dark chocolate and a reduction in depressive symptoms. However, when they looked specifically at dark chocolate consumption, they found people who ate this type of chocolate were 70% less likely to report depressive symptoms than individuals who ate no chocolate at all. Furthermore, the analysis also showed that people who ate the most chocolate (regardless of type) were less likely to experience depression than people who ate no chocolate. While chocolate lovers might rejoice at these findings, more research is needed. That’s because the study is merely observational, so no causational conclusions can be drawn. If subsequent research is performed and does suggest that a link exists between eating chocolate and a lower risk of depression, the biological reasons why will need to be investigated. For now, if you’re a fan of dark chocolate in moderation, you could be reducing your chances of developing depression.
New research suggests that tickling the ear with a small electric current could help rebalance the body’s nervous system in people over-55 and help them age more healthily. The therapy works by stimulating the vagus nerve, the longest of the nerves that connect the brain with other parts of the body such as the heart, lungs and gut. The vagus nerve is usually difficult to access and usually requires surgical intervention so that electric stimuli can be delivered. However, one small branch of the vagus nerve reaches a part of the outer ear and that’s where the researchers from the Universities of Leeds and Glasgow — both in the United Kingdom – stimulated it from. Patients who received the electric stimuli for 15 minutes a day over a 14-day period noted improvements in body, sleep and mood. As we age, our body’s nervous system gradually becomes out of balance and the sympathetic branch begins to dominate. This makes us more prone to diseases, such as hypertension and heart problems, as well as anxiety and depression. The researchers found that the electric ear tickling therapy – named so because that’s how it feels – helped rebalance the body’s nervous system by increasing parasympathetic activity and decreasing sympathetic activity. People with the greatest imbalance at the start of the trial showed the biggest improvement at the end.
New research shows that some drugs commonly prescribed for treating depression, epilepsy and other conditions may increase a person’s risk of dementia. The drugs, which belong to a family of medicines called anticholinergics, have previously been lined to short-term problems with thinking. According to the new study of patients in the UK, the findings of which are published in Jama Internal Medicine, using such drugs could lead to possible long-term brain side effects. However, experts are stressing that the study findings do not prove there is a direct risk and that patients already taking these drugs – literally millions of people in the UK - should not stop doing so. Anticholinergic drugs block the action of a neurotransmitter (chemical messenger) in the brain which controls signals around the body. They are used to treat a variety of conditions, including depression, epilepsy, psychosis, overactive bladder, Parkinson’s disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and some allergies. For the study, researchers looked at nearly 300,000 patients (58,000 with dementia) and their use of medication going back more than 20 years. They found a strong link between the use of certain anticholinergic drugs – namely ones used to treat depression, Parkinson’s, psychosis, bladder conditions and epilepsy - and an increased risk of dementia in individuals aged 55 and over. Anticholinergic drugs used to treat asthma, muscle problems, heart rhythm issues and gastrointestinal problems were not found to pose a dementia risk. Speaking about the findings of the study, Dr Jana Voigt, from Alzheimer's Research UK, said: “There is a growing body of evidence that suggests certain anticholinergic drugs are linked to an increased dementia risk. “While finding a link between certain strong anticholinergic drugs and an increased risk of dementia, it doesn’t tell us if these drugs cause the condition.”
A new study has revealed that half of UK adults cannot name a single dementia risk factor. If asked, how many could you name? The study by Alzheimer's Research UK found that just 1% of UK adults could name the seven known dementia risk or protective factors. Heavy drinking, smoking, genetics, high blood pressure, depression and diabetes are the six dementia risk factors, while physical exercise is a protective factor. According to the study, more than half of UK adults know someone with dementia, yet only half also recognised that the disease is a cause of death. Furthermore, a fifth of people quizzed for the report incorrectly said that dementia is an inevitable part of getting old. Right now, there are more than 850,000 people in the UK living with dementia and that number is expected to top one million by 2025. Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia, accounting for around two-thirds of all cases. Hilary Evans, chief executive of Alzheimer’s Research UK, said: “It is a sad truth that more people are affected by dementia than ever before and half of us now know someone with the condition. Yet despite growing dementia awareness, we must work harder to improve understanding of the diseases that cause it.” You can read the full Alzheimer’s Research UK report here: https://www.dementiastatistics.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Dementia-Attitudes-Monitor-Wave-1-Report.pdf#zoom=100
People who have sedentary jobs could significantly boost their lifespans by taking short, regular movement breaks, a new study has found. It’s no secret that individuals who spend a lot of time sitting down are more likely to develop certain adverse health conditions, such as diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases, as well as having increased risk of osteoporosis, depression, anxiety, colon cancer and high blood pressure. However, just a small amount of exercise, the study suggests, could lower the risk of early death. According to the research – the findings of which are published in the Annals of Internal Medicine – individuals who sat for less than 30 minutes at a time had the lowest risk of early death. For example, workers who had a movement break (involving some low-intensity exercise) every 30 minutes had a 17% lower risk of death than their counterparts who did not have any breaks. Moreover, individuals who broke up periods of sitting every 30 minutes with moderate- to high-intensity exercise lowered their risk of early death by 35%. Speaking about the findings of the research, Keith Diaz, an assistant professor of behavioural medicine at Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City and study lead, said: “If you have a job or lifestyle that involves a lot of sitting, you can lower your risk of early death by moving more often, for as long as you want and as your ability allows — whether that means taking an hour-long high-intensity spin class or choosing lower-intensity activities, like walking.”
A large-scale study has found that just 45 minutes of physical exercise three to five times a week can improve mental wellbeing. [Related reading: People who abstain from alcohol in middle age may have higher risk of dementia] According to the US study of 1.2 million people, people who exercised regularly had fewer “bad days” a month than their non-exercising counterparts. Furthermore, while activities such as cycling, aerobics and team sports had the greatest positive impact, all types of physical activity, including things like doing household chores and looking after kids, were found to improve mental health. Moreover, people who had previously been diagnosed with a mental health condition like depression were found to afford the greatest benefits. The optimal routine identified by the researchers was being physically active for 30 to 60 minutes every second day. More interesting is the researchers’ finding that too much exercise can have a negative impact. Dr Adam Chekroud, study author and assistant professor of psychiatry at Yale University, said: "Previously, people have believed that the more exercise you do, the better your mental health, but our study suggests that this is not the case. "Doing exercise more than 23 times a month, or exercising for longer than 90-minute sessions is associated with worse mental health." The findings of the study are published in The Lancet Psychiatry Journal.
We’ve reported before how singing in community groups can help people recover from mental illness. Now, new research suggests singing may also be beneficial for mothers suffering with post-natal depression. According to the study, which was published in the British Journal of Psychiatry, women with post-natal depression who took part in group singing sessions with their babies experienced a much quicker improvement in their symptoms than their counterparts who did not. Post-natal depression is thought to affect one in eight new mothers and early recovery is believed to be crucial for limiting its effects on both mother and baby. The study highlights how singing can be a more effective treatment for post-natal depression than creative play sessions and typical post-natal care – which usually includes family support, antidepressants and/or mindfulness. Speaking about the findings of the research, Principal investigator Dr Rosie Perkins said: "Post-natal depression is debilitating for mothers and their families, yet our research indicates that for some women something as accessible as singing with their baby could help to speed up recovery at one of the most vulnerable times of their lives."
It’s January 2 and for many people that means it’s time to start thinking about those New Year’s resolutions. The inevitable over-indulgence during the festive period will have triggered many of us to consider eating more healthily and exercising more this year, while others will be looking to give up smoking. The problem is that nicotine is a very addictive drug and many people struggle to give up cigarettes easily. But new research shows how exercising may reduce tobacco withdrawal symptoms. So, if you’re planning to try and quit, exercise could be the answer. Irritability, trouble sleeping and even depression are all withdrawal symptoms associated with giving up smoking. However, it’s been shown that exercise can reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms. In fact, some older studies have discovered that even 10 minutes of exercise can immediately reduce the effects of tobacco cravings. A team from St George's, University of London, led by Dr. Alexis Bailey, a senior lecturer in neuropharmacology, found that mice addicted to nicotine who undertook two or 24 hours a day wheel running displayed a significant reduction of withdrawal symptom severity compared with the sedentary group. Furthermore, in the group of mice that exercised, researchers were able to see an increase in the activity of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine, a type of nicotine brain receptor. Most startling of all was the fact just two hours of exercise daily had as much effect on relieving the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal as exercising continuously for 24 hours. SO, if you really want to crack your smoking habit and give up this year, maybe more exercise could be the key to your success.
More than a third of mothers have experienced a mental health issue related to parenthood, an online survey has found. According to the YouGov poll of 1,800 British parents, in comparison, just 17% of fathers had experienced similar parenthood-related issues. Of the mothers who experienced a mental health issue, more than two-thirds sought professional help as a result. Their conditions included acute stress, severe anxiety and postpartum depression. One of the biggest factors that weighs on the minds of new mums is criticism. Of those surveyed, 26% said their parents were the most critical of their parenting skills, followed by 24% who cited their spouse/partner and 18% other family members. Quite shockingly, 14% said they had been criticised by complete strangers. In comparison, 5% of the 800 fathers said the same. Trouble at work is also not uncommon for new parents. About 30% of mothers who responded said they had felt discriminated against at work because they were a parent, compared with 14% of working fathers. In terms of emotional support, 60% of women said they had received it from their friends, 56% from their partner and 18% went online. However, 15% of mothers and 25% of fathers say they didn't receive any emotional support at all. If nothing else, the survey highlights the struggles many mothers and fathers go through following the birth of a child. Support is crucial in helping these parents get through such difficult times.
The benefits of a full night’s sleep are well known. Insomniacs across the world will tell you what sleep deprivation can do to your mind and body. But now it seems that just a few nights of bad sleep could impact your mental health too. A team of scientists from the University of Oxford in the UK ran a small experiment using four volunteers who normally sleep just fine. The volunteers were fitted with monitors to track their sleep. For the first three nights of the study, they were allowed to sleep normally. For the next three nights, their sleep was restricted to just four hours per night. Each day of the study, the volunteers filled out questionnaires about how they were feeling and kept video diaries. Three out of the four volunteers said the experience was unpleasant, while one said he was largely unaffected. However, tests showed that his mood was significantly impacted, with positive emotions falling and negative emotions rising. Doctoral student Sarah Reeve, one of the scientists who ran the experiment, was surprised by how quickly the volunteers’ moods changed. "There were increases in anxiety, depression and stress, also increases in paranoia and feelings of mistrust about other people", she said. "Given that this happened after only three nights of sleep deprivation, that is pretty impressive."
Depression affects around 6.7% of US adults every year. On a global level, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than 300 million people are currently living with the disorder. When it comes to treatment, medication, psychotherapy, cognitive behavioural therapy or a combination of these approaches is usually used. But new research adds weight to the argument for regular exercise as a depression treatment. Australia-based non-profit group Black Dog Institute conducted an analysis of data collected from 33,908 Norwegian adults who were followed over an 11-year period. Publishing their results in the American Journal of Psychiatry, the team, led by Prof. Samuel Harvey from the Black Dog Institute, found that not only does a little exercise bring substantial benefits, but a lack of exercise actually contributes to depression. Individuals who didn’t undertake any physical activity were found to be 44% more likely to develop depression than those who did just 1 or 2 hours per week. As a result, the authors concluded that approximately 12% of depression cases could have been prevented if the individual did at least 1 hour of exercise per week. "We've known for some time that exercise has a role to play in treating symptoms of depression, but this is the first time we have been able to quantify the preventive potential of physical activity in terms of reducing future levels of depression,” said Prof. Harvey.
The slogan for British yeast extract Marmite is 'You either love it or hate it'. And while many people in America may not have even heard of it, a new study will come as good news for lovers of the popular food stuff. A by-product of beer brewing, Marmite is a sticky, almost black coloured food paste with a very distinctive, powerful, salty flavour. People in the UK usually eat it in sandwiches or on toast. According to a study conducted by researchers from the University of York in the UK, Marmite could help boost brain function. The study found that participants who ate one teaspoon of Marmite every day displayed a reduced response to visual stimuli - an indicator of increased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. Simply put, GABA "clams" the human brain and helps restore the optimal balance of neuronal activity required for healthy brain functioning. Low GABA levels have previously been linked with anxiety, depression, epilepsy, and autism. That's why researchers have been looking at ways to increase GABA levels in the brain. Speaking about the findings of the research, Senior author Dr. Daniel Baker, of the Department of Psychology at York, said: "Since we've found a connection between diet and specific brain processes involving GABA, this research paves the way for further studies looking into how diet could be used as a potential route to understanding this neurotransmitter." The study serves as a great reminder of how diet has the ability to alter brain processes.
Patients who are seeking and undergoing bariatric surgery commonly suffer from mental health conditions, such as depression and binge eating disorders. However, following successful bariatric surgery, the rates of these conditions fall, according to a study published in JAMA. Bariatric surgery is a highly accepted method of promoting weight loss in obese individuals and can also serve to reduce their risk of developing conditions such as heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes and certain kinds of cancer. Dr. Aaron J. Dawes, from the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, led a research team which wanted to discover how common mental health conditions were in people seeking and undergoing bariatric surgery. The findings of their research show that 23% of bariatric surgery patients were affected by a current mental health disorder, with depression (19%); a binge-eating disorder (17%); and anxiety (12%) the most common. Following surgery, a fall in the rate of depression was observed. Of the 27 studies analysed by the research team, seven revealed an 8-74% drop in the rate of depression after surgery, while six reflected a 40-70% reduction in the rate of depressive symptoms. The report authors noted: "Previous reviews have suggested that self-esteem, mental image, cognitive function, temperament, support networks and socioeconomic stability play major roles in determining outcomes after bariatric surgery." They suggest incorporating these factors into future studies, which would help form part of "an optimal strategy for evaluating patients' mental health prior to bariatric surgery." Photo via: Bassett Healthcare Network
The thyroid gland is shaped like a butterfly and found at the base of your neck. It regulates every aspect of your metabolism by producing hormones. This includes everything from how fast you burn calories to how quickly your heart beats. Think of your thyroid as your body’s general thermostat. However, your thyroid can sometimes over-perform or under-perform and that can cause a number of issues to occur. When your thyroid over-performs it causes your pulse to race, your bowel movements to be accelerated, sudden weight loss, as well as excited and aggressive mood swings. When it under-performs it can cause your pulse to slow down, weight gain, constipation and depression. A thyroidectomy is the usual medical procedure undergone to treat disorders relating to your thyroid. These range from minor diseases to cancers and how much of the thyroid is removed totally depends on the reason for the thyroidectomy. If a partial thyroidectomy is performed then only part of the thyroid gland is removed and it may still be able to function normally post-surgery. If a total thyroidectomy is performed and the entire gland is removed, patients inevitably need daily treatment with thyroid hormone replacement therapy to counteract the removal of the thyroid gland. Find out more about thyroidectomies on our website and/or contact us today for more information on how we can facilitate a range of medical procedures for you right here in France.
THYROIDECTOMY What is a Thyroidectomy? The thyroid is an endocrine gland which produces hormones controlling different bodies’ functions. To some extent it can be compared to the body’s general thermostat: When over performing, it triggers pulse acceleration, bowel movement acceleration, weight loss, excitation and aggressiveness. When Under performing, it triggers pulse slowdown, constipation, weight increase, Memory troubles and dépression signs. The thyroid gland can suffer from minor disease or cancer. Up to 10% of people may suffer from a minor thyroid disease (goitre, nodule, hypo or hyperthyroidism) Cancer represents 10 to 12 % of thyroid’s tumour, which explains complete screening prior of deciding for a surgery. Prognostic is very good in more than 90% of cases. The surgery called “thyroidectomy” is performed under general anaesthesia. It consists in removing part or all of the thyroid gland. Incision is done in the neck’s fold to hide the scar as much as possible. If a cancer is suspected, an anatomo-pathologist doctor present during surgery will perform an immediate preliminary analysis of the removed nodule which will help the surgeon decide if a total gland removal is required, reducing the risk to have to perform another surgery later on. If it only is a toxic nodule (e.g. which over produces hormones), only half of thyroid removal will be necessary.