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Green tea may help reduce blood sugar and gut inflammation

04/08/2022

Its origins date back to 2737 B.C. in the Far East when the Chinese Emperor Shennong mistakenly drank water with a dead tea leaf boiled inside. Fast forward to today and people all over the world enjoy green tea as part of their diet, benefiting from the list of potential health benefits in the process. Now, new research shows that green tea may also help reduce blood sugar and gut inflammation. According to the study, published in Current Developments in Nutrition, people who regularly consume green tea have lower fasting blood sugar levels than their peers who don't. Furthermore, green tea extract was also found to decrease gut inflammation, highlighted by a decrease in stool inflammatory proteins. Senior study co-author Richard Bruno, PhD, a professor of human nutrition at The Ohio State University, said the study showed positive results after just one month. “What this tells us is that within one month we’re able to lower blood glucose in both people with metabolic syndrome and healthy people, and the lowering of blood glucose appears to be related to decreasing leaky gut and decreasing gut inflammation — regardless of health status,” he said in a statement. “This could be a simple yet powerful intervention for people with metabolic syndrome or those at risk for it. It could be a therapy to start while we continue to promote healthy lifestyle changes,” said Olivia Vaughn, a registered dietitian nutritionist at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. *Image by Mirko Stödter from Pixabay 

Smartphones could improve memory - study

02/08/2022

Smartphones and other electronic gadgets have been an ubiquitous part of many people's lives for years now. But while the myriad of apps that are available include many that can help us not forget important details or dates, there has always been some debate around how good these gadgets are for our own internal memories. Now, new research has shed a light on the subject. According to the study, published on August 1 in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, external memory devices can actually improve memory for information that someone has never saved. For the study, led by University College London (UCL) researchers, 158 volunteers were asked to play one of three memory task games involving high and low value circles on a touchscreen digital tablet or computer. The researchers found that digital devices help people to store and remember very important information. This, in turn, frees up their own memory to recall additional, less important pieces of information. Participants who tended to use the digital devices to store the details of the high-value circles in the trial, demonstrated a memory improvement of 18%. Their memory for low-value circles was also improved by 27%, even in people who had never set any reminders for low-value circles. Senior author, Dr Sam Gilbert (UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience) said: “The results show that external memory tools work. Far from causing ‘digital dementia’, using an external memory device can even improve our memory for information that we never saved. But we need to be careful that we back up the most important information. Otherwise, if a memory tool fails, we could be left with nothing but lower-importance information in our own memory.” *Image by Thorsten Frenzel from Pixabay

Wearable fitness trackers promote positive health changes - study

26/07/2022

The global wearable fitness tracker market is expected to be worth a staggering $138.7 billion by 2028, testimony to the enormous popularity of these devices. Now, new research shows that fitness trackers really do help motivate people to exercise more each day. According to the large-scale review published in The Lancet by researchers from the University of South Australia (UniSA), wearable fitness trackers promote positive health changes. They spur individuals to move more and lose a modest amount of weight as a result. “Since activity trackers are becoming so widely used in society, research into their effectiveness has grown rapidly,” said lead researcher and UniSA PhD candidate Ty Ferguson. “We realized now was a great time to pull all this knowledge together and see if there is an overall message on their utility as health tools.” For its research, the UniSA team reviewed nearly 400 studies involving around 164,000 participants worldwide who use wearable fitness trackers to monitor their physical activity levels. The team found that wearable fitness trackers motivate people to walk up to 40 minutes more each day, equivalent to roughly 1,800 more steps. This resulted in an average weight loss of 1kg (2.2 lbs) over a 5-month period. “What was a nice surprise is just how helpful they were for such a wide variety of people, including all ages, healthy people, and those living with a variety of chronic conditions,” said Ferguson. *Image by Phi Nguyễn from Pixabay

How to recognise the signs of heat illness

21/07/2022

As temperatures across Europe hit record-breaking highs, it is worth noting the potentially serious consequences of heat illness and some of the associated symptoms, so you can recognise the signs before it's too late. Heat stroke can be fatal and it is significantly more likely to occur during heatwaves. Heat stroke happens when the body can no longer sufficiently regulate its temperature to keep cool. As a result, within just 15 mins a person could find themselves in trouble. Without emergency treatment, heat stroke can lead to permanent disability or even death. Heat exhaustion symptoms include: Heavy sweating Faintness Weak, rapid pulse Muscle cramps Nausea Headaches Extreme thirst Heat stroke, which often develops after heat exhaustion, is a medical emergency and in addition to the symptoms outlined above someone may also experience seizures, shortness of breath and loss of consciousness. If you or someone you know is exhibiting signs of heat stroke, you should seek emergency medical help. Drinking plenty of water, taking cool baths/showers and avoiding the sun between 11am and 3pm can help reduce your chances of developing heat illness. *Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

How to recognise the signs of heat illness

21/07/2022

As temperatures across Europe hit record-breaking highs, it is worth noting the potentially serious consequences of heat illness and some of the associated symptoms, so you can recognise the signs before it's too late. Heat stroke can be fatal and it is significantly more likely to occur during heatwaves. Heat stroke happens when the body can no longer sufficiently regulate its temperature to keep cool. As a result, within just 15 mins a person could find themselves in trouble. Without emergency treatment, heat stroke can lead to permanent disability or even death. Heat exhaustion symptoms include: Heavy sweating Faintness Weak, rapid pulse Muscle cramps Nausea Headaches Extreme thirst Heat stroke, which often develops after heat exhaustion, is a medical emergency and in addition to the symptoms outlined above someone may also experience seizures, shortness of breath and loss of consciousness. If you or someone you know is exhibiting signs of heat stroke, you should seek emergency medical help. Drinking plenty of water, taking cool baths/showers and avoiding the sun between 11am and 3pm can help reduce your chances of developing heat illness. *Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

How to recognise the signs of heat illness

21/07/2022

As temperatures across Europe hit record-breaking highs, it is worth noting the potentially serious consequences of heat illness and some of the associated symptoms, so you can recognise the signs before it's too late. Heat stroke can be fatal and it is significantly more likely to occur during heatwaves. Heat stroke happens when the body can no longer sufficiently regulate its temperature to keep cool. As a result, within just 15 mins a person could find themselves in trouble. Without emergency treatment, heat stroke can lead to permanent disability or even death. Heat exhaustion symptoms include: Heavy sweating Faintness Weak, rapid pulse Muscle cramps Nausea Headaches Extreme thirst Heat stroke, which often develops after heat exhaustion, is a medical emergency and in addition to the symptoms outlined above someone may also experience seizures, shortness of breath and loss of consciousness. If you or someone you know is exhibiting signs of heat stroke, you should seek emergency medical help. Drinking plenty of water, taking cool baths/showers and avoiding the sun between 11am and 3pm can help reduce your chances of developing heat illness. *Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

Common weedkiller found in 80% of people's urine

13/07/2022

A widely used weedkiller has been found in the urine of 80% of people who were tested as part of a national survey in the United States, including children as young as six. Of the 2,310 people whose urine was tested for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1,885 samples were found to contain glyphosate, one of the most popular weedkillers used around the world and the main active ingredient in the Roundup brand, owned by German pharmaceutical company Bayer. Almost a third of samples came from minors. The survey forms part of a US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention program. "Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the country, yet until now we had very little data on exposure," Alexis Temkin, a toxicologist at the Environmental Working Group, said in a statement. "Children in the United States are regularly exposed to this cancer-causing weedkiller through the food they eat virtually every day." Despite insisting that glyphosate is safe, Bayer is currently facing thousands of lawsuits which claim the chemical causes cancer. Bayer previously won four separate trials of a similar nature. In 202, the Environmental Protection Agency stated that glyphosate poses no serious health risk to humans and is “not likely” to cause cancer. *Image by Erich Westendarp from Pixabay

Just one in five Americans have 'optimal' heart health

30/06/2022

Only 20% of American adults have 'optimal' heart health, new research reveals. According to the study by the American Heart Association (AHA), the US population is well below optimal levels of cardiovascular health. This is based on AHA's Life’s Essential 8™ cardiovascular health scoring, its updated metrics to measure heart and brain health. The AHA's Life’s Essential 8 scoring includes: diet physical activity nicotine exposure sleep health body weight blood lipids blood glucos blood pressure With sleep being the newest addition. For the AHA study, researchers analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2013 to 2018. This data included non-pregnant, non-institutionalized individuals between two and 79 years old who did not have cardiovascular disease. All participants had an overall cardiovascular health (CVH) score calculated for them ranging from 0 to 100, as well as a score for diet, physical activity, nicotine exposure, sleep duration, body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, blood glucose, and blood pressure – all using AHA definitions. The results revealed that among the more than 23,400 American adults and children without cardiovascular disease (CVD), overall cardiovascular health was not ideal. Indeed, the research showed roughly 80% of people scored at a low or moderate level. Mitchell Weinberg, MD, chair of cardiology at Staten Island University Hospital, part of Northwell Health in New York, the AHA's Life’s Essential 8 scoring is both valuable and patient friendly for determining CVH. “Possessing one number that crystallizes a person’s current health status enables that individual to comprehend the need for change and target a single numeric goal,” he said. *Image by Andrzej Rembowski from Pixabay

Fit kids are mentally sharper in later life, finds study

29/06/2022

Kids who are physically active stand a greater chance of remaining mentally sharp for decades, new research suggests. The finding adds to the weight of evidence in favour of kids being physically active, such as the associated bone and muscle development benefits and reduced risk of diabetes and heart attack. The study by researchers in Australia followed 1,200 people for 30 years. It uncovered a link between childhood fitness and mental performance in middle age. Commencing in 1985, the study assessed the heart and lung fitness, power, and endurance, and measured for waist-to-hip ratio of children between the ages of 7 and 15 at the time. More than 30 years later, those with the highest fitness scores and lower waist-to-hip ratios as kids tended to score better in tests of their thinking skills. Interestingly, while physical exercise was associated with higher scores in things like processing speed and attention, it had no impact on memory. Michele Callisaya, PhD, a study co-author and associate professor from the National Centre for Healthy Ageing at Peninsula Health and Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, said: “This might be because the cognitive functions of processing speed and attention start to decline in midlife. Memory generally starts to decline later.” The results of the study are published in the Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. *Image by Tri Le from Pixabay

How many immune-boosting microbes do people eat?

22/06/2022

Our gut microbiome – the trillions of bacteria, fungi, viruses and germs that live in our digestive tracts – is hugely important when it comes to health, influencing our immune systems, as well as our physical and mental states. But while we know that certain foods, such as fermented produce, yogurts, and non-starchy vegetables can help boost gut health, little is known about how many immune-boosting microorganisms people actually eat on a day-to-day basis as part of their diets. To investigate, researchers estimated the number of microorganisms per gram in more than 9,000 food items, including those high in such organisms, like yogurt, pickles, and kimchi. Then, to see how many people ate foods packed with microorganisms, the researchers took a detail look dietary data collected from 2001 to 2018 for almost 75,000 adults and children. Overall, 26% of adults and 20% of children consumed foods with high levels of microorganisms, researchers reported in The Journal of Nutrition. "When we think of microbes in our food, we often think of either foodborne pathogens that cause disease or probiotics that provide a documented health benefit," study co-author Colin Hill, PhD, of APC Microbiome Ireland at University College Cork, said in a statement. "It is very timely to estimate the daily intake of microbes by individuals in modern society as a first step towards a scientific evaluation of the importance of dietary microbes in human health and well-being," he added. *Image by rhys jung from Pixabay

2-3 cups of coffee a day may reduce kidney injury risk by almost a quarter

16/06/2022

Coffee consumption is linked to numerous health benefits, including a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, as well as liver, heart, and neurological diseases. Now, new research suggests we can also add kidney protection to that list. According to the study, the results of which are published in Kidney International Reports, people who regularly drink coffee have a reduced risk acute kidney injury. However, the benefits are most apparent in those who drink 2-3 cups of coffee each day. For the study, the team of researchers used data from 14,207 adults ages 45-64 from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. The researchers asked the participants to disclose information relating to how much coffee they drank. The results were:  27% never drank coffee 14% drank less than a cup of coffee per day 19% drank 1 cup per day 23% drank 2-3 cups per day 17% drank more than 3 cups per day After adjusting for demographic factors, the researchers found that participants who consumed any amount of coffee had an 11% lower risk of developing acute kidney injury than those who did not drink coffee. The researchers further noted a that those consuming 2-3 cups of coffee per day experienced the most substantial risk reduction (23%) *Image by Craig Melville from Pixabay

Cancer-killing virus injected into human in new trial

07/06/2022

A virus that infects and kills cancer cells has been injected into a human patient for the first time as part of a new clinical trial. The novel therapy, CF33-hNIS, also called Vaxinia, is what is known as a oncolytic virus i.e. one that deliberately targets cancel cells while avoiding healthy cells. It infiltrates the cancer cells and rapidly replicates, killing its host. At low doses, the therapy has been shown to reduce the size of a broad range of cancers in animal and laboratory models. And according to Imugene Limited, a clinical cancer research company, it can also help prime peoples' immune systems against cancer. For the phase one clinical trial, Vaxinia will be injected into people who have solid tumors and have received at least two types of prior treatment. The virus is either injected directly into the tumor itself or via the patient's vein. This phase of the trial is designed to judge Vaxinia's safety and tolerability in human patients. "Our previous research demonstrated that oncolytic viruses can stimulate the immune system to respond to and kill cancer, as well as stimulate the immune system to be more responsive to other immunotherapies," says City of Hope oncologist and principal investigator Daneng Li. "We believe CF33-hNIS has the potential to improve outcomes for our patients." *Image courtesy of PIRO4D from Pixabay

A cup of cranberries a day could keep cognitive decline away

26/05/2022

A new study has shed more light on the potential health benefits of cranberries, specifically how they might help fight cognitive decline because of a particular group of plant compounds they contain known as flavanoids. In previous studies, flavanoids, which are found in vegetables, fruit, red wine, tea, and coffee, have been associated with slower rates of cognitive decline and lower dementia risk. Cranberries are actually rich in two types of flavonoids: anthocyanin and proanthocyanidins. Dr. David Vauzour, senior research fellow in molecular nutrition at the University of East Anglia in the United Kingdom, wanted to investigate how cranberries impact the brain. To address the knowledge gap, Dr. Vauzour led a new study, the results of which are published in Frontiers in Nutrition. Interestingly, the stufy revealed a link between consuming the equivalent of a cup of cranberries a day and improved memory function. For the study, 60 pre-screened participants were separated into two groups and asked to undergo pre-intervention baseline tests to assess their cognitive levels. Participants were then asked to either take a sachet of freeze-dried cranberry powder or a placebo for a period of 12 weeks. Follow-up testing revealed that the group taking the cranberry powder not only demonstrated significant improvements in visual episodic memory performance, but also had increased flow in three areas of their brains. Dr. Vauzour says he would now like to see this study replicated with a larger sample size. *Image by Kristine Lejniece from Pixabay

Skip those late-night meals to reap anti-aging benefits – study

20/05/2022

Calorie restriction has long been known to have anti-aging benefits, but now new research suggests timing can also play a role. According to the study by researchers at the University of Texas (UT) Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, the timing of meals contributes to the life-extending effects of calorie restriction. Studying mice, the researchers found that following a calorie-restricted diet, the rodents that only ate during the active phase of their circadian rhythm lived nearly 35% longer than control mice that were allowed to eat whenever they wanted. Both animals and humans have circadian rhythms, the purpose of which is to control daily cycles of physiology, metabolism, and behaviors like eating. In mice, which are nocturnal, the normal time to eat is at night. The study revealed how eating at other times had a significant impact on lifespan. “We have discovered a new facet to caloric restriction that dramatically extends lifespan in our lab animals,” says senior author Dr. Joseph Takahashi, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and chair of neuroscience at UT Southwestern Medical Center. “If these findings hold true in people, we might want to rethink whether we really want that midnight snack,” he adds. The study is published in the journal Science. *image by DanaTentis from Pixabay

A one-week social media break helps reduce anxiety, depression - study

09/05/2022

It's become a ubiquitous part of most people's lives, but social media could be driving feelings of anxiety and depression, and taking a break from it for just one week can be beneficial, new research shows. According to the study, which is published in the journal Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, people who stopped using social media platforms such as TikTok, Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook for seven days reported an increased sense of well-being. Moreover, some said they got back around nine hours in their week that they would have otherwise spent scrolling such platforms. “Scrolling social media is so ubiquitous that many of us do it almost without thinking from the moment we wake up to when we close our eyes at night,” Jeff Lambert, the lead study author and a health and exercise psychologist at the University of Bath, said in a statement. “We know that social media usage is huge and that there are increasing concerns about its mental health effects,” he said. “We wanted to see whether simply asking people to take a week’s break could yield mental health benefits.” The researchers now want to investigate whether other groups can benefit from taking social media breaks, including younger people and those with physical and mental health conditions. The team also wants to monitor individuals for longer than a week to see if the benefits last over time. If the results do indeed last, the study authors say we might even see social media breaks being prescribed as an option for people dealing with mental health issues. *Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

Could the 'love hormone' oxytocin be responsible for life satisfaction?

04/05/2022

Oxytocin – also known as the “love hormone” – is a neurochemical that acts on organs in the body and as a chemical messenger in the brain, controlling not just key functions of the reproductive system, but also aspects of human behaviour. Now, new research has revealed how people whose brains produce more oxytocin are kinder to others and live more satisfied lives. In addition, the research also discovered that as we age we produce more oxytocin, which could provide clues as to why older individuals are often more caring and more content with life than their younger peers. For the research, more than 100 people were recruited and asked to watch an empathy-invoking video about a father and his child with terminal cancer. At the end of the video, the participants were given a financial reward and asked if they wanted to donate any of it to charity. Oxytocin levels were measured before and after these steps. “The findings of our study are consistent with many religions and philosophies, where satisfaction with one’s life is enhanced by helping others,” reported first author Dr Paul J Zak of Claremont Graduate University. “People who released the most oxytocin in the experiment were not only more generous to charity, but also performed many other helping behaviors. This is the first time a distinct change in oxytocin has been related to past prosocial behaviors,” reported Zak. The findings of the study are published in the journal Frontier in Behavioral Neuroscience. *image courtesy of Tristan Le via pexels.com

Largest migraine-genetics study to date could inspire new treatments

19/04/2022

Millions of people around the world suffer with migraines on a regular basis. These debilitating headaches can last for days at a time and, in severe cases, prevent people from going about their daily lives, including working and studying. While there are drugs to treat migraine headaches and others to prevent their onset, the cause of migraines remains unknown. The leading theory is that migraines are a neurovascular condition that involves an interaction between the blood vessels in the head and the brain itself. Now, the largest study of migraines to date has uncovered 123 genetic regions, or loci, that are associated with the condition — 86 of which were previously unknown. The research, which involved analyzing the genomes of 102,084 people with migraine and those of 771,257 controls who do not have the condition, has trebled the known genetic risk factors for the condition. “In addition to implicating tens of new regions of the genome for more targeted investigation, our study provides the first meaningful opportunity to evaluate shared and distinct genetic components in the two main migraine subtypes,” says first author Heidi Hautakangas, Ph.D., from the Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland at the University of Helsinki. The study is published in Nature Genetics. *Image by StockSnap from Pixabay    

Staying hydrated linked to decreased heart failure risk

06/04/2022

Staying "well hydrated" in middle age may lower a person's risk of heart failure in later life, new research suggests. According to the study by researchers at the Laboratory of Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), individuals with lower blood sodium levels (serum sodium) has a 39% lower risk of having heart failure in their later years. Serum sodium increases as a person's fluid levels decrease i.e. people who are dehydrated usually have more sodium in their blood. The normal range for serum sodium is 135 to 146 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). The researchers found that study participants with levels of serum sodium on the high end of the normal range — above 143 mmol/L — had a 39% increased risk of developing heart failure. For the study, the researchers analyzed information from more than 11,000 adults aged 45 to 66 over a 25-year period. It is worth noting that the study did not include individuals with diabetes, obesity or heart failure. The results of the study are published in the European Heart Journal. *Image by Engin Akyurt from Pixabay

New research sheds light on why COVID-19 causes loss of smell, taste

29/03/2022

One of the most distinctive symptoms of COVID-19, the disease that can arise from the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is loss of taste and smell. This symptom can even affect people for weeks and months after they have developed the disease. Now, new research provides some insight into why this is the case. Originally thought to be related to damage of the olfactory nerves, the decreased or altered sense of smell is called olfactory dysfunction. However, according to the new research published this week in The Laryngoscope, loss of smell due to COVID-19 may also be because of swollen and blocked nasal passages. “Initially, we noticed a pattern in patients with COVID-19 that they lost their sense of smell and taste. We noticed these findings could be used as an indicator of whether or not a patient had COVID-19, but we thought it had to do with the olfactory nerve,” said Dr. Anjali Bharati, an ER physician at Lenox Health Greenwich Village in New York, NY. However, the researchers discovered that a contributing factor of the loss of smell and taste is due to the tissues instead of nerves. The good news is that cells recycle and heal much more easily than nerve damage. “Nerve damage is a more serious thing. The question becomes ‘does it recover?’” said Bharati. “This news involves the physical makeup of the nose, like the nasal passage and the back of the throat. Nerve damage is part of the brain, which is more disconcerting than the nasal passages.”   *Image credit: Photo by doTERRA International, LLC via Pexels

This AI tool can be used to predict heart attacks

23/03/2022

Scientists have developed a method that could make automating the prediction of heart attacks a reality. The Artificial Intelligence-enabled tool, which was developed by scientists at Cedars-Sinai in Los Angeles, uses an algorithm to measure people's levels of coronary plaque buildup. It then predicts how likely the person is to have a heart attack based on the amount and composition of their plaque. The tool, described in The Lancet Digital Health, performs its analyzes on medical tests called coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), which take 3D images of the heart and coronary arteries. Until now though, there hasn't been a fast or automated way to analyze the CTA images. Plaque buildup can lead to arteries narrowing, which makes it more difficult for blood to get to the heart, increasing the likelihood of a heart attack. "Coronary plaque is often not measured because there is not a fully automated way to do it," said Damini Dey, PhD, director of the quantitative image analysis lab in the Biomedical Imaging Research Institute at Cedars-Sinai and senior author of the study. "When it is measured, it takes an expert at least 25 to 30 minutes, but now we can use this program to quantify plaque from CTA images in five to six seconds." Having been trained by the scientists, the AI tool accurately predicted which patients would experience a heart attack in five years based on the plaque seen in their CTA images. "More studies are needed, but it's possible we may be able to predict if and how soon a person is likely to have a heart attack based on the amount and composition of the plaque imaged with this standard test," said Dey. *Image by Pexels from Pixabay

Sleep in darkness to protect your health

17/03/2022

Sleeping with even a small amount of light may disrupt your blood sugar and cardiovascular control, new research suggests. According to the study by scientists at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, leaving a TV or bedside lamp on overnight is enough to the raise blood sugar and heart rates of healthy people. For the study – the results of which are published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences – 20 healthy volunteers were asked to spend two nights in the university's sleep lab. On the first night, all participants slept in a very dark room. On the second, half slept with a lighting level of 100 lux, equivalent to a TV or bedside light. Each morning, the research team investigated all the volunteers’ blood sugar control. They found that people who slept in the dimly lit room on their second night had slightly worse blood sugar control than on their first night. “They thought they slept well, but your brain knows that the lights are on,” said Senior study author Dr Phyllis Zee, chief of sleep medicine at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. People who had two nights under dark conditions had little difference in their blood sugar control. Zee added: “The results from this study demonstrate that just a single night of exposure to moderate room lighting during sleep can impair glucose and cardiovascular regulation, which are risk factors for heart disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome.” *Image by StockSnap from Pixabay

Australia approves new malaria treatment for younger people

15/03/2022

A new malaria drug that can cure a certain type of the disease has been approved in Australia for kids and teens. Announcing the approval on Monday 14 March, the non-profit organization Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) said a single dose of tafenoquine (Kozenis) for use in combination with the traditional malaria drug chloroquine. This is the first time the drug has been authorized for use in children and will likely lead to more such approvals worldwide. Tafenoquine, which was developed by MMV and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), can cure a type of malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax, most common in South and Southeast Asia, South America and the Horn of Africa. It is estimated that P. vivax causes up to 5 million malaria infections every year, with children aged 2 to 6 four times more likely than adults to contract it, according to MMV. "We are proud to have worked with GSK to develop this child-friendly treatment and are thrilled by today's announcement. P. vivax malaria is particularly dangerous for young children for whom repeated relapses can lead to cumulative severe anemia and, in some cases, be fatal. Today, we have a tool to put a stop to the relentless relapse both for adults and children – we are one step closer to defeating this disease," Dr. David Reddy, CEO of MMV, said in a statement. The drug will be submitted for approval in nine countries, as well as to the World Health Organization, George Jagoe, an executive vice president with MMV, told The New York Times. *Image by Welcome to all and thank you for your visit ! ツ from Pixabay

Having a healthy gut microbiome can improve the success of cancer treatment

01/03/2022

More is being discovered all the time about the significant role of the bacteria, fungi and other microbes that live in our stomachs and intestines when it comes to our health. Now, the largest study of its kind to date has confirmed the link between the gut microbiome and the response to cancer immunotherapy therapy for melanoma. The study, the findings of which are published in the journal Nature Medicine, was co-ordinated by King's College London, CIBIO Department of the University of Trento and European Institute of Oncology in Italy, University of Groningen in the Netherlands and funded by the Seerave Foundation. Dr Karla Lee, clinical researcher at King's College London and first author of the study, said: "Preliminary studies on a limited number of patients have suggested that the gut microbiome, as an immune system regulator, plays a role in the response of each patient to cancer immunotherapy, and particularly in the case of melanoma. This new study could have a major impact on oncology and medicine in general." It's known that dietary changes can alter the microbiome, as can next generation probiotics and faecal transplantation. This change is in turn modifying the microbiome's action on the immune system. With this new understanding of the microbiome's impact on cancer therapy effectiveness, clinicians can potentially look to alter a patient's microbiome before beginning treatment. This is potentially important because less than 50% of immunotherapy patients respond positively to treatment for melanoma. *image licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license

Significant proportion of older adults develop new health conditions after COVID-19

16/02/2022

Initially, when the COVID-19 outbreak first happened, many thought the SARS-CoV-2 virus caused mainly respiratory problems. And while that assumption still holds true, new research shows that the disease can actually impact multiple organs in a person's body.   The new study, the results of which appear in the BMJ, sought to discover whether adults develop other health conditions after a SARS-CoV-2 infection.   For the research, a team led by Dr. Ken Cohen, executive director of translational research at Optum Labs, studied the health insurance records of 133,366 adults aged 65+ in the United States who had received a COVID-19 diagnosis before April 1, 2020.   The researchers compared the records to individuals who did not have COVID-19 in 2019 or 2020 and individuals who had a lower respiratory tract infection but not COVID-19.   The team then identified new conditions occurring 3 weeks or more after each participant’s COVID-19 diagnosis.   Of those individuals who had a SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020, 32% sought medical attention for a new or persistent condition. This was 11% higher than the comparison group from 2020.   Among the new or persistent conditions were respiratory failure, fatigue, high blood pressure, memory issues, kidney injury, mental health-related diagnoses, hypercoagulability and cardiac rhythm disorders.   Dr. Alicia Arbaje, director of Transitional Care Research at Johns Hopkins Medicine and a clinician at the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center in Baltimore, said: “I think this work is significant. First, because it focuses on older adults, and this is the population that’s most likely to demonstrate long-term effects from this infection, and so I think it’s important and timely given the phase of the pandemic that we’re in.”   [Related reading: Long Covid may hinder women's response, recovery from exercise]   *Image by Michal Jarmoluk from Pixabay

Highly accurate new blood test can detect early-stage lung cancer

10/02/2022

The earlier lung cancer is diagnosed, the greater a patient's chances of survival. Now, a new test has could help with the detection of lung cancer in is early stages. Developed by researchers at Peking University People’s Hospital in China, the novel non-invasive blood test assess levels of lipid biomarkers in patients' plasma samples. While lung cancer screening techniques already exist, they often produce low accuracy results. And considering better treatment options and survival rates are associated with earlier detection, accuracy is key. In contrast, the new test, named Lung Cancer Artificial Intelligence Detector (LCAID), has high accuracy. The study’s lead author, Jun Wang, chief of the Department of Thoracic Surgery at Peking University Peoples Hospital, explained: “The accuracy and high specificity of LCAID might help improve the detection and screening of lung cancer and consequently reduce unnecessary exposure to radiation and invasive diagnostic procedures. Notably, most patients with lung cancer included in this study were at Stage I, and over 90% of them were correctly classified by LCAID.” More information about the LCAID research can be found in Science Translational Medicine. *Image courtesy of Belova59 from Pixabay 

Magnesium's role in fighting cancer, boosting immunity revealed

25/01/2022

Magnesium is an essential macromineral, which means we all need to consume relatively large amounts of it to stay healthy. According to the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, the recommended daily amount of magnesium adults 19-51+ years should consume is 400-420 mg daily for men and 310-320 mg for women. Almonds, cashews, peanuts and spinach are all good sources of magnesium. But walnuts are even more magnesium-rich, providing around 158mg of the macromineral per 100g. Consuming enough magnesium in your diet is linked with a number of health benefits, including healthy bones, lower type 2 diabetes risk and better cardiovascular health. Magnesium is also linked to improved muscle contraction and nerve transmission, as well as better regulated blood pressure and boosted immunity. Previous research has shown that mice on a low-magnesium diet experience faster rates of cancer spread. Furthermore, said mice have weaker immune defenses against influenza viruses. Now, Swiss scientists have discovered that a type of immune cell, called a cytotoxic or “killer” T cell, need magnesium to do their jobs and eliminate cancerous or infected cells. The researchers discovered that magnesium activates a protein called LFA-1 on the surface of cytotoxic T cells, which they use to lock on to their targets. Senior author Dr. Christoph Hess, Ph.D., from the University of Basel in Switzerland and the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom, explains: “In the inactive state, this docking site is in a bent conformation and thus cannot efficiently bind to infected or abnormal cells.” “If magnesium is present in sufficient quantities in the vicinity of the T cells, it binds to LFA-1 and ensures that it remains in an extended — and therefore active — position.” The researchers also found, through analyzing data from past clinical trials of cancer immunotherapies, that low serum levels of magnesium were associated with more rapid disease progression and shorter survival. The Swiss study appears in the journal Cell. *image by Pera Detlic from Pixabay

Post-Covid autoimmune response can last months and attack body cells - study

06/01/2022

New research has found that being infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that can cause COVID-19, can trigger an immune response which lasts well after the initial infection and recovery, even if the person experiences mild symptoms or is asymptomatic. Infection with a virus causes our bodies to unleash proteins called antibodies which are designed to protect our cells from the foreign invaders (the virus). In some circumstances, however, these antibodies can attack the body's own organs and tissues. According to the research conducted by Cedars-Sinai, people who have had a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, have a wide variety of autoantibodies up to six months after they have fully recovered, including some which can cause injury to organs and tissues. The study is the first to report not only the presence of elevated autoantibodies after mild or asymptomatic infection but their persistence over time. "These findings help to explain what makes COVID-19 an especially unique disease," said Justyna Fert-Bober, Justyna Fert-Bober, PhD, research scientist in the Department of Cardiology at the Smidt Heart Institute and co-senior author of the study. "These patterns of immune dysregulation could be underlying the different types of persistent symptoms we see in people who go on to develop the condition now referred to as long COVID-19," Fert-Bober added. The research has been published in the Journal of Translational Medicine. *Image by leo2014 from Pixabay 

Why that New Year's weight loss resolution could be more important than ever this year

04/01/2022

It's 2022 and for many that means starting a New Year's resolution or three. And this year, with the threat of different coronavirus variants a distinct reality, losing weight could be significant. That's because data shows people who are overweight and obese have a greater chance of being more severely impacted should they catch COVID. Indeed, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), being obese increases the risk of severe illness from COVID-19. In fact, obese individuals are not just 46% more at risk of contracting COVID-19, they are three times more likely to be hospitalized because of COVID-19 than their average weight peers. More worryingly, obese people also face a 74% higher risk of needing to be treated in the ICU and, perhaps most troubling of all, have a 48% increased risk of death. "The risk goes up and up and up with each increase" in body mass index (BMI), said study co-author Barry Popkin, a distinguished professor in the Department of Nutrition at the University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health. Dozens of studies have shown similar results. So, if you ever needed an incentive to lose some of that festive fat, the threat posed by COVID should provide all the motivation you need. Image by Michal Jarmoluk from Pixabay

Experimental chewing gum neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 in the mouth

14/12/2021

To aid in the fight against the coronavirus pandemic, researchers have developed an experimental chewing gum that neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 - the virus that causes COVID-19 – in the mouth. Symptomatic and asymptomatic people with COVID-19 carry a high SARS-CoV-2 viral load in their saliva. This viral load is one of the main ways that the SARS-CoV-2 spreads from person to person. Therefore, neutralizing this viral load while it's still in the mouth could be a formidable way to curb the spread of the disease. That's why researchers, led by Penn Dental Medicine in Philadelphia, PA, created a chewing gum from plant-based materials that could reduce the SARS-CoV-2 viral load in saliva. Speaking to Medical News Today, Henry Daniell, Ph.D., vice-chair and W.D. Miller Professor in the Department of Basic & Translational Sciences at Penn Dental Medicine in Philadelphia, PA, lead author of the study, said: “SARS-CoV-2 replicates in the salivary glands, therefore, debulking viruses in the oral cavity should decrease reinfection of [people with a SARS-CoV-2 infection], in addition to prevention of transmission.” “So,” Dr. Daniell continued, “[Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)] chewing gum should provide people with COVID-19 time to build immunity and help reduce disease severity, which depends on viral load.” The current study appears in Molecular Therapy. Image by davidgaigg from Pixabay 

Ultra-processed foods linked with higher risk of heart attack, stroke

09/12/2021

The impact of heavily processed foods on your health has been widely acknowledged for some time. But now new research shows just how potentially dangerous consuming such food products can be for people who have already had a heart attack or stroke. According to the research by the Department of Epidemiology and Prevention of the I.R.C.C.S. Neuromed in Pozzilli, Italy, consuming ultra-processed foods (UPFs) increases the risk of a second — and more likely fatal — heart attack or stroke for people who already have cardiovascular disease (CVD). In fact, the research shows that UPFs are associated with a two-thirds increased risk of a second heart attack or stroke, this time fatal, compared with people who eat these types of foods less frequently. Furthermore, the researchers also found that the probability of people who frequently eat UPFs of dying from any cause was 40% higher. Examples of UPFs include soft drinks, sweet or savory packaged snacks, reconstituted meat products, and pre-prepared frozen dishes. Worryingly, many adult Americans' diets comprise high levels of UPFs, as much as 60% in some cases. The study is published in the European Heart Journal. *Image by Shirley Hirst from Pixabay

Scientists discover trigger for rare blood clots with AstraZeneca COVID vaccine

06/12/2021

In rare cases – estimated to be around 4-6 of every one million people - some individuals who receive the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine develop blood clots that can pose a risk to their health. Now, scientists believe they have discovered the trigger as to why this happens. The team – from Cardiff in Wales and the United States – have shown how a protein in the blood is attracted to a key component of the vaccine like a magnet. This attraction invokes an immune response that can see blood clots form. However, all of this relies on a series of unlucky events, which is why the number of people who experience such clots is so low. Prof Alan Parker, one of the researchers at Cardiff University, told BBC News: "The adenovirus has an extremely negative surface, and platelet factor four is extremely positive and the two things fit together quite well." He added: "We've been able to prove the link between the key smoking guns of adenoviruses and platelet factor four. "What we have is the trigger, but there's a lot of steps that have to happen next." The scientists' study is published in the journal Science Advances. *Image by Angelo Esslinger from Pixabay

Drinking more coffee could lower risk of dementia, study finds

25/11/2021

A new long-term study has found that people who drink higher amounts of coffee may be less likely to develop Alzheimer's disease. As part of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of ageing, the study investigated whether coffee intake affected the rate of cognitive decline of more than 200 Australians over a decade. According to the research led by Edith Cowan University scientists, coffee intake may not only be a protective factor against Alzheimer's disease, but increased consumption of coffee could potentially reduce cognitive decline. Lead investigator Dr Samantha Gardener said the results showed an association between coffee and several important Alzheimer's disease-related markers. "We found participants with no memory impairments and with higher coffee consumption at the start of the study had lower risk of transitioning to mild cognitive impairment -- which often precedes Alzheimer's disease -- or developing Alzheimer's disease over the course of the study," she said. Higher coffee intake gave positive results in relation to certain domains of cognitive function, specifically executive function which includes planning, self-control and attention. Drinking more coffee also seemed to be linked to slowing the accumulation of the amyloid protein in the brain, a key factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, the researchers were not able to differentiate between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption, nor determine differences based on coffee preparation method or additions such as milk or sugar. Image by Elias Shariff Falla Mardini from Pixabay

Herbs, spices can reduce blood pressure, research finds

16/11/2021

The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says nearly half of American adults are living with high blood pressure (hypertension). Left untreated, this hypertension can lead to serious cardiovascular conditions, such as heart attack, stroke and heart failure. Individuals with hypertension are often advised to reduce their salt intake, as doing so can help reduce blood pressure levels. Now, a group of researchers from Pennsylvania State University has decided to investigate the health effects of herbs and spices, particularly whether they can benefit people with hypertension. The researchers conducted a randomized, controlled trial to look at the effect of longer-term consumption of herbs and spices on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. They found that a higher level of herbs and spices in food reduced 24-hour blood pressure readings. The findings appear in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Speaking to Medical News Today, Prof. Penny Kris-Etherton, one of the lead authors of the study, said: “Indeed, the blood pressure-lowering effects of herbs and spices in an average Western diet were surprising to me. “We [already know] about the effects of many lifestyle factors, especially dietary factors, that can increase blood pressure — such as sodium, alcohol, and caffeine — and others that can decrease blood pressure, such as potassium, magnesium, and calcium, […] weight loss, physical activity, and some vitamins, including folate and vitamin D when intake is low, but the blood pressure-lowering effects of herbs and spices are new!” *Image by monicore from Pixabay

France allows supervised self-tests to be used to obtain Covid health passes

11/11/2021

Since October 15, people in France have not been able to use supervised self-tests to obtain a Covid health pass. But the French government has now suspended this decree, effectively opening the door for supervised self-tests to be used for health pass purposes. Covid tests became payable on October 15 and the government said that unvaccinated people would no longer be allowed to carry out a self-test under the supervision of a health professional in order to obtain a health pass. At the time, the Conseil d’État (Council of State) said “this form of test had only been provided in order to avoid any difficulties with accessing PCR or antigen tests as the health pass was being implemented. “These difficulties did not materialise and there is no risk of them appearing now.” On October 29, the Conseil d’État suspended this decree, reintroducing the possibility of obtaining a health pass through a negative self-administered test. So instead of paying around €25-€30 for a pharmacist or other professional to carry out the procedure, individuals can buy a self-test for around €5. Government information service service-public.fr now says people can acquire a temporary health pass by presenting “proof of a negative PCR, antigen or self-test carried out under the supervision of a health professional within the last 72 hours.” *Image by Bastian Riccardi from Pixabay

South Korea and Europe partner for innovations in health and science

02/11/2021

The International Vaccine Institute (IVI) in South Korea and the Joint European Disruptive Initiative (JEDI) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to establish a collaborative relationship. Both organizations are dedicated to advancing innovations in health and science. IVI and JEDI will explore many cooperation routes, in particular around innovative approaches to zoonoses, infectious diseases and in addressing the global threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Additionally, the MOU invites Dr. Jerome Kim, Director General of IVI; Francois Belin, Chief Operating Officer of IVI; and Dr Anh Wartel, Deputy Director General of IVI’s Clinical, Assessment, Regulatory, and Evaluation Unit; to participate in JEDI’s International Partners Advisory Board. The signing ceremony took place at the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) in Paris, France with Dr Jerome Kim and André Loesekrug-Pietri, Chairman of JEDI. Dr Kim said “With JEDI’s common interest in combatting existing and future zoonoses as well as global AMR, we look forward to collaborating on solutions to this threat to humanity.” Loesekrug-Pietri said “As we did for the JEDI GrandChallenge against Covid-19, we want to introduce disruptive approaches to other fields of healthcare, with boldness and a total focus on excellence. As a first concrete step, we are excited to work with IVI to tackle antimicrobial resistance, including new capabilities in computational biology.” *Image by Michal Jarmoluk from Pixabay

French hospitals to benefit from 3D printing tech under new deal

19/10/2021

A new deal between a medtech start-up and a 3D printing technology firm will see the latter’s innovative solutions made available across French hospitals. The agreement between French medtech start-up Bone 3D and Stratasys, a polymer 3D printing solutions provider, will afford hospitals direct access to an immediate, localised way of 3D printing essential medical equipment, medical devices and patient-specific anatomical models. Healthcare providers can sub-contract 3D printing hardware and services from Bone 3D, granting them the direct means to fulfil their own production needs on-site, as well as receive dedicated ongoing support from Bone 3D technicians. Jérémy Adam, CEO and founder, Bone 3D said: “Early on in the COVID-19 pandemic, the world witnessed the importance of 3D printing first-hand as it provided a swift and direct means of producing vital PPE to equip frontline healthcare workers, ventilator parts and other critical medical equipment. “However, beyond that, the versatility of 3D printing has seen huge demand from hospitals and medical institutions for a means to create maintenance parts, rehabilitation parts and medical devices. Our Hospifactory initiative will ensure that some of the market’s most advanced 3D printing technologies are made accessible exactly where and when they are needed by surgeons and clinicians across the French hospital network.” The latest partnership between Stratasys and Bone 3D follows last year’s deployment by Bone 3D of 60 Stratasys FDM 3D printers in the AP-HP in Paris, to support the frontline fight against COVID-19. *Image by krzysztof-m from Pixabay 

French medical cannabis trial shows promise

05/10/2021

Pain medicines produced from cannabis oil have the potential to significantly improve the lives of patients, a French study has found. According to the initial results from a trial that began in a French hospital back in March, using medical cannabis for pain relief is effective. Psychiatrist Dr Nicolas Authier, Chair of the Scientific Committee on Medical Cannabis, is in charge of the experiment being conducted at the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand in central France. Dr Authier picked 20 suitable patients for participation in the trial. One patient, Mounir, 47, who suffered a stroke aged 21 and consequently struggled with painkiller addiction in an attempt to manage his neuropathic pain, told France 3: “I'm not yet completely relieved of the pain. There is some still, but it is nothing like what I felt before.” The trial is part of a two-year nationwide experiment in France that is primarily designed to evaluate the best conditions of access to medical cannabis. Depending on the patient and their condition, medical cannabis can deliver mild to significant relief. However, some patients have experienced no improvement, while others experienced more undesirable effects than therapeutic ones. Dr Authier hopes that medical cannabis can be legalized for patients whose suffering is poorly relieved by conventional treatments. Image by Julia Teichmann from Pixabay

New home kit could reduce heart attack deaths in France

21/09/2021

A new home kit that can be used to restart someone’s heart following a heart attack could reduce the number of deaths in France from cardiac arrest by 50,000 each year. Paris-based Lifeaz has seen demand for its defibrillators for the home and office soar in the first seven months since its launch. The firm hopes its machines, which deliver electric shocks to the heart, will help prevent heart attack deaths in France by enabling people to restart a heart in the crucial first four minutes of an attack. Célia Rich, the firm’s chief training adviser, said: “In places like Seattle in the United States, where there are lots of defibrillators, the chances of surviving a big heart attack are 60% to 70%, while in France they are just 5%." Lifeaz’s founder, Johann Kalchman, previously worked for a business specialising in pacemakers. This is where he became enlightened about the need to improve heart attack victims’ chances in France. It’s estimated that 80% of heart attacks occur at home, but a lack of first aid training and fear of intervening mean people often wait the 10 to 15 minutes it takes for emergency services to arrive without helping. “Our machines are designed to make things as easy as possible,” said Ms Rich. “Once they are opened, you push a button to choose between French or English and then just follow the voice instructions and pictures. “After the shock treatment, it guides people on how to give cardiac massage until the victim recovers consciousness.” The defibrillators are designed and made in France and individuals can buy them for €990, or rent them for €29.90 per month. The price is slightly higher for businesses, but includes staff training. *Image by Pexels from Pixabay 

France’s Covid-19 health pass success encourages more countries to adopt similar initiatives

07/09/2021

French Health Minister Olivier Véran has hailed the country’s Covid-19 health pass as a success, adding that similar initiatives are now being introduced in “dozens” of other countries around the world. Speaking to France 5, Mr Véran said other countries were now considering similar initiatives having seen the impact made in France. The health pass obliges people to show proof of full vaccination, a recent negative test or recent recovery from Covid-19 to be able to enter restaurants, bars and a range of other public spaces. Since the pass was announced by President Emmanuel Macron on July 12, some 12 million people (equivalent to 18% of France’s population) have been vaccinated, according to Prime Minister Jean Castex. Back in March, only 3% of the French population had been fully vaccinated against Covid-19, according to Le Monde. But this figure has now risen to 67%, highlighting how more and more people are receiving a Covid vaccine. Interestingly, take-up among the young has been particularly high considering vaccination was delayed for this group. Meanwhile, Covid health passes will no longer be required for entry into all but 64 French shopping centres this week. From Wednesday the health pass obligation will no longer apply to centres of more than 20,000 square metres in departments where the infection rate has dropped below 200 per 100,000 residents, and where cases have been falling for a week or more, Economy Minister Bruno Le Maire announced yesterday (September 6). *Image by Please Don't sell My Artwork AS IS from Pixabay

How telehealth has been helping stroke patients afford better outcomes for decades

19/08/2021

For stroke patients, receiving treatment as soon as possible is vital. The shorter time between the stroke and treatment, the less chance there is of serious damage to the patient’s brain. That’s why fast diagnosis of a stroke is so important for the patient’s overall prognosis. But vascular neurologists, the clinicians most called upon to check stroke patients, are often in short supply and high demand. As a result, they cannot always see every suspected stroke patient as quickly as perhaps liked. The answer has been to utilise telemedicine and this is something neurologists have been doing for more than three decades. By taking advantage of audio-visual platforms, neurologists can assess suspected stroke patients quickly. If the patient is displaying signs of a stroke, they can be given life-saving treatment, consisting of administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-dissolving drug first developed for treating heart attacks, which was then fine-tuned for strokes in the early 1990s. The success of tPA, however, lies in administering it as quickly as possible, to counter the effect of blood loss to the brain. A 2016 study highlights the impact of telehealth for stroke patients. According to Kaiser Permanente’s study, involving more than 2,500 patients treated for stroke symptoms between 2013 and 2015 in its 14-hospital network in southern California, a 75% increase was witnessed in the timely use of tPA after a telehealth consult. Patients receiving a telehealth consult were given a diagnostic imaging test 12 minutes sooner than those who didn’t, and tPA was administered 11 minutes sooner. Overall, the door-to-needle time was reduced to less than an hour. *Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay 

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