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Want to stay on top of your weight? More sleep could be the answer, research suggests

12/05/2022

How much good quality sleep you get each night could impact your ability to not only lose weight but also maintain it, new research suggests. Studies have previously shown that a lack of quality sleep can increase people's desire for high calorie foods, including those that are loaded with carbohydrates. Now, new research reveals how a lack of quality sleep can also undermine people's attempts to maintain a healthy weight after dieting. For the study, researchers from the University of Copenhagen studied the quality and duration of sleep among 195 obese adults. They found that a low calorie diet can help aid better sleep, with sleep quality increasing by 0.8 global PSQI score points and sleep duration by 17 minutes per night after the initial 8-week period. Moreover, the researchers found that those who slept less than 6 hours a night, or had poor sleep quality, increased their BMI by 1.1 kg/m2. In comparison, obese adults who achieved over 6 hours of quality sleep each night reduced their BMI by 0.16 kg/m2. Dr. Signe Torekov, study lead author and a professor of clinical translation metabolism, said: “Adults who aren’t sleeping enough or getting poor quality sleep after weight loss appear less successful at maintaining weight loss than those with sufficient sleep.”

A one-week social media break helps reduce anxiety, depression - study

09/05/2022

It's become a ubiquitous part of most people's lives, but social media could be driving feelings of anxiety and depression, and taking a break from it for just one week can be beneficial, new research shows. According to the study, which is published in the journal Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, people who stopped using social media platforms such as TikTok, Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook for seven days reported an increased sense of well-being. Moreover, some said they got back around nine hours in their week that they would have otherwise spent scrolling such platforms. “Scrolling social media is so ubiquitous that many of us do it almost without thinking from the moment we wake up to when we close our eyes at night,” Jeff Lambert, the lead study author and a health and exercise psychologist at the University of Bath, said in a statement. “We know that social media usage is huge and that there are increasing concerns about its mental health effects,” he said. “We wanted to see whether simply asking people to take a week’s break could yield mental health benefits.” The researchers now want to investigate whether other groups can benefit from taking social media breaks, including younger people and those with physical and mental health conditions. The team also wants to monitor individuals for longer than a week to see if the benefits last over time. If the results do indeed last, the study authors say we might even see social media breaks being prescribed as an option for people dealing with mental health issues. *Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

Could the 'love hormone' oxytocin be responsible for life satisfaction?

04/05/2022

Oxytocin – also known as the “love hormone” – is a neurochemical that acts on organs in the body and as a chemical messenger in the brain, controlling not just key functions of the reproductive system, but also aspects of human behaviour. Now, new research has revealed how people whose brains produce more oxytocin are kinder to others and live more satisfied lives. In addition, the research also discovered that as we age we produce more oxytocin, which could provide clues as to why older individuals are often more caring and more content with life than their younger peers. For the research, more than 100 people were recruited and asked to watch an empathy-invoking video about a father and his child with terminal cancer. At the end of the video, the participants were given a financial reward and asked if they wanted to donate any of it to charity. Oxytocin levels were measured before and after these steps. “The findings of our study are consistent with many religions and philosophies, where satisfaction with one’s life is enhanced by helping others,” reported first author Dr Paul J Zak of Claremont Graduate University. “People who released the most oxytocin in the experiment were not only more generous to charity, but also performed many other helping behaviors. This is the first time a distinct change in oxytocin has been related to past prosocial behaviors,” reported Zak. The findings of the study are published in the journal Frontier in Behavioral Neuroscience. *image courtesy of Tristan Le via pexels.com

Food cravings could be our guts, not our brains, telling us something

28/04/2022

Most people experience cravings for certain foods from time to time. But did you ever stop to think that these cravings could be your body's way of telling you that it wants something in particular? New research by the University of Pittsburgh has revealed that when we crave foods, it could be our gut microbiome's way of getting us to forage for foods containing certain nutrients. Studying mice that had been bred to have no microbiome, the researchers showed they could influence the mice's diet preferences through their gut microbiomes. Drs Kevin Kohl and Brian Trevelline from the University of Pittsburgh collected microbes from three wild rodent species with different natural diets. They gave these microbic “cocktails” to 30 of the study mice. What they witnessed was mice with different microbes selecting foods rich in significantly different macronutrients. In other words, it was as though their guts were driving their food preferences. Speaking about the findings of the research, Dr. Trevelline said: "Animals need a suite of essential amino acids to survive. But the microbes that live inside of our guts need [to] grow and have some of these same nutrients or make nutrients that the human body or the animal body can recognize. For instance, they make these essential amino acids, and then they’re released into the gut where they can be absorbed by the host.” *Image by John Hain from Pixabay 

Tackling obesity: What you eat is more important than when you eat - study

26/04/2022

If you're trying to lose weight, focusing on what you eat instead of when you eat could be the key to success, new research suggests. According to the Chinese study, the results of which are published in The New England Journal of Medicine, the number of calories you consume has a greater impact on your weight than when you eat. For the study, 139 obese individuals were put on a calorie-restricted diet. Men were told to consume between 1,500 and 1,800 calories per day, while women were limited to 1,200 to 1,500 calories per day. Half of the study participants were then also told to follow a time-restricted eating pattern, which saw them only able to consume their daily food allocation between 8am and 4pm each day. The results show the group using just calorie restrictions lost an average of 6.3kg while the group that was also under time restrictions lost an average of 8kg during the 12-month study period. The researchers say the difference between the two groups is so negligible that it suggests adding time restrictions is no more beneficial with regard to reducing body weight, body fat, or metabolic risk factors than just daily calorie restriction alone. *Image by hectordarismendi from Pixabay

Largest migraine-genetics study to date could inspire new treatments

19/04/2022

Millions of people around the world suffer with migraines on a regular basis. These debilitating headaches can last for days at a time and, in severe cases, prevent people from going about their daily lives, including working and studying. While there are drugs to treat migraine headaches and others to prevent their onset, the cause of migraines remains unknown. The leading theory is that migraines are a neurovascular condition that involves an interaction between the blood vessels in the head and the brain itself. Now, the largest study of migraines to date has uncovered 123 genetic regions, or loci, that are associated with the condition — 86 of which were previously unknown. The research, which involved analyzing the genomes of 102,084 people with migraine and those of 771,257 controls who do not have the condition, has trebled the known genetic risk factors for the condition. “In addition to implicating tens of new regions of the genome for more targeted investigation, our study provides the first meaningful opportunity to evaluate shared and distinct genetic components in the two main migraine subtypes,” says first author Heidi Hautakangas, Ph.D., from the Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland at the University of Helsinki. The study is published in Nature Genetics. *Image by StockSnap from Pixabay    

Artificial pancreas could make life easier for people with type 1 diabetes

12/04/2022

For people living with type 1 diabetes, finger prick tests to check blood glucose levels are a necessary part of daily life. Without them, these individuals could experience potentially life-threatening hypoglycaemic attacks, where their blood sugar levels fall too low. But regular finger prick tests could become a thing of the past for people with type 1 diabetes thanks to an artificial pancreas being trialled in England. The technology includes a sensor under the skin that monitors blood glucose levels, a pump that automatically adjusts the amount of insulin the person needs and a smartphone app where they can input the number of carbohydrates they eat at meal times. NHS England says the artificial pancreas trial – which currently involves around 900 people – is the first nationwide test of the technology in the world. It also comes 100 years after the first diabetes patient received insulin injections. Prof Partha Kar, NHS national speciality adviser for diabetes, said: "Having machines monitor and deliver medication for diabetes patients sounds quite sci-fi like, but technology and machines are part and parcel of how we live our lives every day. "It is not very far away from the holy grail of a fully automated system, where people with type 1 diabetes can get on with their lives without worrying about glucose levels or medication." *Image by Steve Buissinne from Pixabay 

Regular exercise linked to more heart health benefits among people with stress, anxiety

07/04/2022

People who suffer with stress and anxiety could realise heart health benefits through regular exercise, new research has found. According to the study by res earchers at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, regular physical activity among individuals with depression or anxiety had nearly double the cardiovascular benefit than in people without such diagnoses. The study found that, people who accomplished the recommended amount of physical activity per week – 150 minutes, according to he American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association – were 17 per cent less likely to suffer a major adverse cardiovascular event than those who exercised less. However, of those who achieved the recommended amount of physical activity per week, individuals with anxiety or depression had a 22 per cent risk reduction versus a 10 per cent among those without either condition. The analysis included more than 50,000 patients in the Massachusetts General Brigham Biobank database. Just over 4,000 of the patients analyzed had suffered a major cardiovascular event, like a heart attack, chest pain caused by a blocked artery, or underwent a procedure to open a blocked artery in the heart. Commenting on the study's findings, Michael Emery, MD, who is the co-director of the Sports Cardiology Center at Cleveland Clinic in Ohio, and was not involved in the study, said: “Exercise is medicine both physically and psychologically, and these factors interplay such that when you are more physically healthy your psychological state is more robust, and when you are mentally more healthy your physical state is improved.” *Image by StockSnap from Pixabay

Staying hydrated linked to decreased heart failure risk

06/04/2022

Staying "well hydrated" in middle age may lower a person's risk of heart failure in later life, new research suggests. According to the study by researchers at the Laboratory of Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), individuals with lower blood sodium levels (serum sodium) has a 39% lower risk of having heart failure in their later years. Serum sodium increases as a person's fluid levels decrease i.e. people who are dehydrated usually have more sodium in their blood. The normal range for serum sodium is 135 to 146 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). The researchers found that study participants with levels of serum sodium on the high end of the normal range — above 143 mmol/L — had a 39% increased risk of developing heart failure. For the study, the researchers analyzed information from more than 11,000 adults aged 45 to 66 over a 25-year period. It is worth noting that the study did not include individuals with diabetes, obesity or heart failure. The results of the study are published in the European Heart Journal. *Image by Engin Akyurt from Pixabay

Just two servings of avocado per week cuts risk of cardiovascular disease

31/03/2022

Eating just two servings of avocado each week can cut your risk of cardiovascular disease by a fifth, new research reveals. According to the study by researchers from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health in Boston, one avocado a week (equivalent to two servings) appears to cut the risk of coronary heart disease by 21% compared to people who do not eat avocado. Furthermore, by replacing half a serving of margarine, butter, egg, yoghurt, cheese or processed meats per day with the equivalent amount of avocado, people can lower their risk of heart disease by 16%-22%. Avocados contain dietary fibre, healthy monounsaturated fats and other key vitamins and minerals, including magnesium and vitamins C, E, and K. The new study, published in the Journal of the American Heart Association (JAMA), involved almost 70,000 women from the NHS Nurses’ Health Study and around 40,000 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Speaking about the findings of the research, Dr Cheryl Anderson, chair of the American Heart Association’s Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, said: “We desperately need strategies to improve intake of American Heart Association-recommended healthy diets — such as the Mediterranean diet — that are rich in vegetables and fruits. “Although no one food is the solution to routinely eating a healthy diet, this study is evidence that avocados have possible health benefits.” *Image by Juraj Varga from Pixabay

New research sheds light on why COVID-19 causes loss of smell, taste

29/03/2022

One of the most distinctive symptoms of COVID-19, the disease that can arise from the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is loss of taste and smell. This symptom can even affect people for weeks and months after they have developed the disease. Now, new research provides some insight into why this is the case. Originally thought to be related to damage of the olfactory nerves, the decreased or altered sense of smell is called olfactory dysfunction. However, according to the new research published this week in The Laryngoscope, loss of smell due to COVID-19 may also be because of swollen and blocked nasal passages. “Initially, we noticed a pattern in patients with COVID-19 that they lost their sense of smell and taste. We noticed these findings could be used as an indicator of whether or not a patient had COVID-19, but we thought it had to do with the olfactory nerve,” said Dr. Anjali Bharati, an ER physician at Lenox Health Greenwich Village in New York, NY. However, the researchers discovered that a contributing factor of the loss of smell and taste is due to the tissues instead of nerves. The good news is that cells recycle and heal much more easily than nerve damage. “Nerve damage is a more serious thing. The question becomes ‘does it recover?’” said Bharati. “This news involves the physical makeup of the nose, like the nasal passage and the back of the throat. Nerve damage is part of the brain, which is more disconcerting than the nasal passages.”   *Image credit: Photo by doTERRA International, LLC via Pexels

Sugar-free drinks help lower weight and risk of diabetes

24/03/2022

Sugar-free and low sugar drinks can help people realise a number of health benefits, a new study has found. According to the research, the results of which are published in JAMA Network Open, drinking diet soda and sugar alternatives, such as Stevia and Equal, instead of can help people lose weight, reduce their BMI, and lower their risk of diabetes. In fact, the researchers said participants who consumed low and no-calorie beverages saw positive effects similar to those one would expect from water. “Ideally, you would replace sugary beverages with water as much as possible, but our findings show that people have another choice — a low-calorie or no-calorie beverage is a good option as well,” said Tauseef Ahmad Khan, MBBS, PhD, a researcher at the University of Toronto department of nutritional sciences and a coauthor of the study. Modern Western diets often contain too much sugar and it's causing a huge health problem. For example, the average American consumes 22 teaspoons (tsp) of added sugar daily, according to the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends people limit their daily intake of sugar to about 6 tsp women and 9 tsp for men. Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, lists higher blood pressure, inflammation, weight gain, diabetes, and fatty liver disease among the health issues related to too much sugar intake. *Image by DesignDraw DesignDrawArtes from Pixabay

This AI tool can be used to predict heart attacks

23/03/2022

Scientists have developed a method that could make automating the prediction of heart attacks a reality. The Artificial Intelligence-enabled tool, which was developed by scientists at Cedars-Sinai in Los Angeles, uses an algorithm to measure people's levels of coronary plaque buildup. It then predicts how likely the person is to have a heart attack based on the amount and composition of their plaque. The tool, described in The Lancet Digital Health, performs its analyzes on medical tests called coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), which take 3D images of the heart and coronary arteries. Until now though, there hasn't been a fast or automated way to analyze the CTA images. Plaque buildup can lead to arteries narrowing, which makes it more difficult for blood to get to the heart, increasing the likelihood of a heart attack. "Coronary plaque is often not measured because there is not a fully automated way to do it," said Damini Dey, PhD, director of the quantitative image analysis lab in the Biomedical Imaging Research Institute at Cedars-Sinai and senior author of the study. "When it is measured, it takes an expert at least 25 to 30 minutes, but now we can use this program to quantify plaque from CTA images in five to six seconds." Having been trained by the scientists, the AI tool accurately predicted which patients would experience a heart attack in five years based on the plaque seen in their CTA images. "More studies are needed, but it's possible we may be able to predict if and how soon a person is likely to have a heart attack based on the amount and composition of the plaque imaged with this standard test," said Dey. *Image by Pexels from Pixabay

Sleep in darkness to protect your health

17/03/2022

Sleeping with even a small amount of light may disrupt your blood sugar and cardiovascular control, new research suggests. According to the study by scientists at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, leaving a TV or bedside lamp on overnight is enough to the raise blood sugar and heart rates of healthy people. For the study – the results of which are published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences – 20 healthy volunteers were asked to spend two nights in the university's sleep lab. On the first night, all participants slept in a very dark room. On the second, half slept with a lighting level of 100 lux, equivalent to a TV or bedside light. Each morning, the research team investigated all the volunteers’ blood sugar control. They found that people who slept in the dimly lit room on their second night had slightly worse blood sugar control than on their first night. “They thought they slept well, but your brain knows that the lights are on,” said Senior study author Dr Phyllis Zee, chief of sleep medicine at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. People who had two nights under dark conditions had little difference in their blood sugar control. Zee added: “The results from this study demonstrate that just a single night of exposure to moderate room lighting during sleep can impair glucose and cardiovascular regulation, which are risk factors for heart disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome.” *Image by StockSnap from Pixabay

Australia approves new malaria treatment for younger people

15/03/2022

A new malaria drug that can cure a certain type of the disease has been approved in Australia for kids and teens. Announcing the approval on Monday 14 March, the non-profit organization Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) said a single dose of tafenoquine (Kozenis) for use in combination with the traditional malaria drug chloroquine. This is the first time the drug has been authorized for use in children and will likely lead to more such approvals worldwide. Tafenoquine, which was developed by MMV and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), can cure a type of malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax, most common in South and Southeast Asia, South America and the Horn of Africa. It is estimated that P. vivax causes up to 5 million malaria infections every year, with children aged 2 to 6 four times more likely than adults to contract it, according to MMV. "We are proud to have worked with GSK to develop this child-friendly treatment and are thrilled by today's announcement. P. vivax malaria is particularly dangerous for young children for whom repeated relapses can lead to cumulative severe anemia and, in some cases, be fatal. Today, we have a tool to put a stop to the relentless relapse both for adults and children – we are one step closer to defeating this disease," Dr. David Reddy, CEO of MMV, said in a statement. The drug will be submitted for approval in nine countries, as well as to the World Health Organization, George Jagoe, an executive vice president with MMV, told The New York Times. *Image by Welcome to all and thank you for your visit ! ツ from Pixabay

Having a healthy gut microbiome can improve the success of cancer treatment

01/03/2022

More is being discovered all the time about the significant role of the bacteria, fungi and other microbes that live in our stomachs and intestines when it comes to our health. Now, the largest study of its kind to date has confirmed the link between the gut microbiome and the response to cancer immunotherapy therapy for melanoma. The study, the findings of which are published in the journal Nature Medicine, was co-ordinated by King's College London, CIBIO Department of the University of Trento and European Institute of Oncology in Italy, University of Groningen in the Netherlands and funded by the Seerave Foundation. Dr Karla Lee, clinical researcher at King's College London and first author of the study, said: "Preliminary studies on a limited number of patients have suggested that the gut microbiome, as an immune system regulator, plays a role in the response of each patient to cancer immunotherapy, and particularly in the case of melanoma. This new study could have a major impact on oncology and medicine in general." It's known that dietary changes can alter the microbiome, as can next generation probiotics and faecal transplantation. This change is in turn modifying the microbiome's action on the immune system. With this new understanding of the microbiome's impact on cancer therapy effectiveness, clinicians can potentially look to alter a patient's microbiome before beginning treatment. This is potentially important because less than 50% of immunotherapy patients respond positively to treatment for melanoma. *image licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license

Owning a pet long term may slow cognitive decline - study

28/02/2022

Good news for pet lovers as a new study shows that having a long-term furry companion may delay memory loss and other kinds of cognitive decline. According to the preliminary study by researchers at the University of Michigan, pet ownership was especially beneficial for working verbal memory, such as memorization of word lists. The new data is expected to be presented at the American Academy of Neurology’s 74th Annual Meeting in Seattle in April. In a press release, Dr. Tiffany Braley of the University of Michigan Medical Center in Ann Arbor, Michigan, who authored the study, said: “Prior studies have suggested that the human-animal bond may have health benefits like decreasing blood pressure and stress.” However, she added, “our results suggest pet ownership may also be protective against cognitive decline.” Owning a pet for five or more years was linked to delayed ageing in the brain of adults around 65 years old. While owing a dog was found to be most beneficial, followed by owning a cat, people who cared for rabbits, hamsters, birds, fish and reptiles can also reap benefits. The bottom line is the Michigan researchers found that cognitive scores decreased at a slower rate in pet owners than non-pet owners over the six-year period. *Image by Sven Lachmann from Pixabay

Just two glasses of wine enough to hit daily sugar limit

21/02/2022

Sorry, wine lovers, but new research shows that you could be hitting your daily recommended sugar intake with just two glasses of your favorite tipple. The analysis of 30 bottles of wine by Alcohol Health Alliance UK, a coalition of more than 60 organisations working together to reduce the harm caused by alcohol, found that some bottles had up to 59g of sugar – more than a glazed doughnut! In the UK, winemakers are not legally required to put nutritional information on labels. The UK's NHS recommends that adults consume no more than 30g of "free sugars" per day, which includes sugar in fruit juices and smoothies, or sugar added to food or drink. Campaigners are calling for change, to better inform wine drinkers about how many calories and how much sugar they are consuming. The Alcohol Health Alliance UK analysis revealed it was possible for a person to hit the daily sugar limit for adults by drinking two medium-sized glasses of some wines. More telling was the discovery that lower-strength wines were among those containing the most sugar. So just because they have a lower alcohol content, it doesn't mean they are necessarily the healthier option. Next time you're in your local supermarket, have a look to see which wines have nutritional information and, if you can, opt for one that has a lower sugar content. Image by Vinotecarium from Pixabay

Significant proportion of older adults develop new health conditions after COVID-19

16/02/2022

Initially, when the COVID-19 outbreak first happened, many thought the SARS-CoV-2 virus caused mainly respiratory problems. And while that assumption still holds true, new research shows that the disease can actually impact multiple organs in a person's body.   The new study, the results of which appear in the BMJ, sought to discover whether adults develop other health conditions after a SARS-CoV-2 infection.   For the research, a team led by Dr. Ken Cohen, executive director of translational research at Optum Labs, studied the health insurance records of 133,366 adults aged 65+ in the United States who had received a COVID-19 diagnosis before April 1, 2020.   The researchers compared the records to individuals who did not have COVID-19 in 2019 or 2020 and individuals who had a lower respiratory tract infection but not COVID-19.   The team then identified new conditions occurring 3 weeks or more after each participant’s COVID-19 diagnosis.   Of those individuals who had a SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020, 32% sought medical attention for a new or persistent condition. This was 11% higher than the comparison group from 2020.   Among the new or persistent conditions were respiratory failure, fatigue, high blood pressure, memory issues, kidney injury, mental health-related diagnoses, hypercoagulability and cardiac rhythm disorders.   Dr. Alicia Arbaje, director of Transitional Care Research at Johns Hopkins Medicine and a clinician at the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center in Baltimore, said: “I think this work is significant. First, because it focuses on older adults, and this is the population that’s most likely to demonstrate long-term effects from this infection, and so I think it’s important and timely given the phase of the pandemic that we’re in.”   [Related reading: Long Covid may hinder women's response, recovery from exercise]   *Image by Michal Jarmoluk from Pixabay

Highly accurate new blood test can detect early-stage lung cancer

10/02/2022

The earlier lung cancer is diagnosed, the greater a patient's chances of survival. Now, a new test has could help with the detection of lung cancer in is early stages. Developed by researchers at Peking University People’s Hospital in China, the novel non-invasive blood test assess levels of lipid biomarkers in patients' plasma samples. While lung cancer screening techniques already exist, they often produce low accuracy results. And considering better treatment options and survival rates are associated with earlier detection, accuracy is key. In contrast, the new test, named Lung Cancer Artificial Intelligence Detector (LCAID), has high accuracy. The study’s lead author, Jun Wang, chief of the Department of Thoracic Surgery at Peking University Peoples Hospital, explained: “The accuracy and high specificity of LCAID might help improve the detection and screening of lung cancer and consequently reduce unnecessary exposure to radiation and invasive diagnostic procedures. Notably, most patients with lung cancer included in this study were at Stage I, and over 90% of them were correctly classified by LCAID.” More information about the LCAID research can be found in Science Translational Medicine. *Image courtesy of Belova59 from Pixabay 

How an hour more in bed can kerb your calorie intake

08/02/2022

More sleep each night could help with weight loss, according to a new study published yesterday.   Published in JAMA Internal Medicine, the study by researchers from the University of Chicago and University of Wisconsin adds to the growing evidence that sufficient sleep plays a crucial part to overall health and wellbeing.   By getting just over an hour of extra sleep a night, study participants reduced their caloric intake by an average of 270 kilocalories (kcal) a day. The researchers say this amount could translate to a 26-pound loss over 3 years.   Prior research has found that sleep restriction causes people to eat more and increases the chances of weight gain over time.   Speaking about the study, researcher Dr. Estra Tasali, director of the UChicago Sleep Center at the University of Chicago Medicine, said: “Prior research showed that sleep loss leads to increases [in] food intake in the laboratory setting and weight gain. In our study, we showed for the first time that in [a] real-word setting, objectively tracked caloric intake is decreased when sleep is extended in individuals who habitually sleep less than 6.5 hours.”   For the study, the researchers recruited 80 obese adult participants, aged 21 to 40, who habitually slept fewer than 6.5 hours a night. Both caloric intake and daily energy stores were measured via a simple urine-based test.   *image courtesy of Katniss12 from Pixabay

Just 10 mins of exercise a day can boost your health - study

01/02/2022

Just 10 minutes of exercise a day could prolong your life, as well as save hundreds of thousands of deaths every year, new research suggests. According to the study published in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine, if adults over 40 added 10 minutes of moderate to physical exercise to their daily routines, more than 110,000 deaths in the US alone could be prevented annually. But the benefits of exercise don't stop there. If the amount of physical activity was increased by 30 minutes, even more lives – as many as 272,297 – could be saved each year. “We have known that regular exercise is essential and has tremendous health benefits,” said Dr. Vanita Rahman, clinic director of the Barnard Medical Center at the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, a non-profit organization that promotes preventive medicine. The good news is that almost anyone can benefit because your 10 minutes of exercise could be as simple as a walk around the block or dancing to a few of your favorite songs in your kitchen. Dana Santas, a mind-body coach for professional athletes, said: “Fitting in ten minutes of exercise every day is so much easier than people think. Consider how fast ten minutes goes by when you're mindlessly scrolling social media or watching your favorite TV show. It's not a big time investment, but it can deliver big health benefits.” *Image by Mabel Amber, who will one day from Pixabay

Magnesium's role in fighting cancer, boosting immunity revealed

25/01/2022

Magnesium is an essential macromineral, which means we all need to consume relatively large amounts of it to stay healthy. According to the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, the recommended daily amount of magnesium adults 19-51+ years should consume is 400-420 mg daily for men and 310-320 mg for women. Almonds, cashews, peanuts and spinach are all good sources of magnesium. But walnuts are even more magnesium-rich, providing around 158mg of the macromineral per 100g. Consuming enough magnesium in your diet is linked with a number of health benefits, including healthy bones, lower type 2 diabetes risk and better cardiovascular health. Magnesium is also linked to improved muscle contraction and nerve transmission, as well as better regulated blood pressure and boosted immunity. Previous research has shown that mice on a low-magnesium diet experience faster rates of cancer spread. Furthermore, said mice have weaker immune defenses against influenza viruses. Now, Swiss scientists have discovered that a type of immune cell, called a cytotoxic or “killer” T cell, need magnesium to do their jobs and eliminate cancerous or infected cells. The researchers discovered that magnesium activates a protein called LFA-1 on the surface of cytotoxic T cells, which they use to lock on to their targets. Senior author Dr. Christoph Hess, Ph.D., from the University of Basel in Switzerland and the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom, explains: “In the inactive state, this docking site is in a bent conformation and thus cannot efficiently bind to infected or abnormal cells.” “If magnesium is present in sufficient quantities in the vicinity of the T cells, it binds to LFA-1 and ensures that it remains in an extended — and therefore active — position.” The researchers also found, through analyzing data from past clinical trials of cancer immunotherapies, that low serum levels of magnesium were associated with more rapid disease progression and shorter survival. The Swiss study appears in the journal Cell. *image by Pera Detlic from Pixabay

Astronauts experience 'space anemia' when they go into space

18/01/2022

The impact of space travel on the human body has always been thought to be significant. But now a new study reveals just how hard it hits an astronaut's red blood cells.  On Earth, our bodies make and destroy around 2 million red blood cells every second. However, in space, the number of red blood cells destroyed rises to 3 million per second, according to a new study, resulting in a loss of 54% more cells than people on Earth experience. This lower red blood cell phenomenon is known as space anemia and it was previously only thought to last for the first 10 days in space. But the University of Ottawa research shows that space anemia actually lasts for the full duration of the astronaut's mission and their red blood cell levels only return to normal between three to four months after their return to Earth. "Space anemia has consistently been reported when astronauts returned to Earth since the first space missions, but we didn't know why," said study author Dr. Guy Trudel, a rehabilitation physician and researcher at The Ottawa Hospital and professor at the University of Ottawa, in a statement. The findings of the study are published in the journal Nature Medicine. Image by WikiImages from Pixabay

How sharks could help in the fight against coronaviruses

11/01/2022

Sharks could potentially help in the fight against COVID-19, new research suggests. According to the study by researchers from University of Wisconsin-Madison, the University of Minnesota and biomedical company Elasmogen, a biomedical company in Scotland, antibody-like proteins derived from sharks' immune systems can prevent SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, its variants, and related coronaviruses from infecting human cells. The small, unique shark cells, known as VNARs, are around one-tenth the size of human antibodies, which allows them to reach even the tiniest of areas. The researchers found the VNARs can bind to infectious proteins in unique ways that bolster their ability to halt infection. Intriguingly, they were not just effective against SARS-CoV-2 , but also SARS-CoV-1, which caused the first SARS outbreak in 2003. While the researchers say their findings will not help in the fight against the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, as treatments using shark VNARs simply aren't yet available, they could hold some promise in the face of future coronavirus outbreaks. "The big issue is there are a number of coronaviruses that are poised for emergence in humans," says Aaron LeBeau, a University of Wisconsin-Madison professor of pathology who helped lead the study. "What we're doing is preparing an arsenal of shark VNAR therapeutics that could be used down the road for future SARS outbreaks. It's a kind of insurance against the future." The team published its findings in Nature Communications. *image courtesy of Andrea Bohl from Pixabay 

Post-Covid autoimmune response can last months and attack body cells - study

06/01/2022

New research has found that being infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that can cause COVID-19, can trigger an immune response which lasts well after the initial infection and recovery, even if the person experiences mild symptoms or is asymptomatic. Infection with a virus causes our bodies to unleash proteins called antibodies which are designed to protect our cells from the foreign invaders (the virus). In some circumstances, however, these antibodies can attack the body's own organs and tissues. According to the research conducted by Cedars-Sinai, people who have had a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, have a wide variety of autoantibodies up to six months after they have fully recovered, including some which can cause injury to organs and tissues. The study is the first to report not only the presence of elevated autoantibodies after mild or asymptomatic infection but their persistence over time. "These findings help to explain what makes COVID-19 an especially unique disease," said Justyna Fert-Bober, Justyna Fert-Bober, PhD, research scientist in the Department of Cardiology at the Smidt Heart Institute and co-senior author of the study. "These patterns of immune dysregulation could be underlying the different types of persistent symptoms we see in people who go on to develop the condition now referred to as long COVID-19," Fert-Bober added. The research has been published in the Journal of Translational Medicine. *Image by leo2014 from Pixabay 

Why that New Year's weight loss resolution could be more important than ever this year

04/01/2022

It's 2022 and for many that means starting a New Year's resolution or three. And this year, with the threat of different coronavirus variants a distinct reality, losing weight could be significant. That's because data shows people who are overweight and obese have a greater chance of being more severely impacted should they catch COVID. Indeed, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), being obese increases the risk of severe illness from COVID-19. In fact, obese individuals are not just 46% more at risk of contracting COVID-19, they are three times more likely to be hospitalized because of COVID-19 than their average weight peers. More worryingly, obese people also face a 74% higher risk of needing to be treated in the ICU and, perhaps most troubling of all, have a 48% increased risk of death. "The risk goes up and up and up with each increase" in body mass index (BMI), said study co-author Barry Popkin, a distinguished professor in the Department of Nutrition at the University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health. Dozens of studies have shown similar results. So, if you ever needed an incentive to lose some of that festive fat, the threat posed by COVID should provide all the motivation you need. Image by Michal Jarmoluk from Pixabay

Pandemic got you stressed? A dog could be the answer...

21/12/2021

The unprecedented events of the last two years have certainly taken their toll on people's mental health. An ongoing health pandemic, disrupted lives and sporadic lockdowns have led to heightened levels of stress and anxiety. Now, new research reveals how owning a dog can has been beneficial to many people's mental health during the COVID-19 outbreak. According to the study by a team of researchers from Nestlé Purina Research in Saint-Louis in Missouri, United States, dog owners reported less depression and felt they had more social support compared with a control group during the COVID-19 pandemic. Speaking with Medical News Today, Dr. Francois Martin, lead author and section leader of the Behavior and Welfare Group at Nestlé Purina Research, said: “The context of the COVID-19 pandemic offered a unique opportunity to better understand how dogs may provide social support for their owners, buffer heightened symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression, and contribute to happiness.” The researchers say their study shows that owning a dog helped protect pet owners from some of the negative psychological impacts of the pandemic. They also say that it adds to the scientific evidence that dogs provide positive support to their owners during hard times. “We also found that dog owners had significantly lower depression scores than potential dog owners, but the two groups had similar anxiety and happiness scores,” Dr. Martin added. The results from this observational study appear in the journal PLOS ONE. *Image by Sven Lachmann from Pixabay

Just 10 minutes of running boosts brain function, improves mood

16/12/2021

Just 10 minutes of running can boost brain function and improve mood, new research has revealed. One of the cheapest and most accessible forms of exercise, running, has long been associated with improved cardiovascular health, increased muscle strength, and stronger bones. But now a new study has revealed that running can also improve mental health. According to the research by a team of scientists at the University of Tsukuba in Japan, just 10 minutes of moderate intensity running improves both mood and executive processing. Brain revealed that after running for just a short time, local blood flow to various parts of the prefrontal cortex increased (compared to participants who didn't run). The prefrontal cortex plays an important role in controlling mood and executive functions. Speaking about the study, Prof. Hideaki Soya of University of Tsukuba said: “Based on previous studies, including our own, physical exercise has been revealed to increase executive function by predominantly activating the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is a brain locus implicated in inhibitory and mood control, without reporting change of pleasant mood.” While the findings of the study are compelling, it should be noted that there were only 26 participants. Furthermore, these participants were asked to self-report their mood after running, which is always open to bias. The results of the study appear in the journal Scientific Reports. *image by Daniel Reche from Pixabay

Experimental chewing gum neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 in the mouth

14/12/2021

To aid in the fight against the coronavirus pandemic, researchers have developed an experimental chewing gum that neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 - the virus that causes COVID-19 – in the mouth. Symptomatic and asymptomatic people with COVID-19 carry a high SARS-CoV-2 viral load in their saliva. This viral load is one of the main ways that the SARS-CoV-2 spreads from person to person. Therefore, neutralizing this viral load while it's still in the mouth could be a formidable way to curb the spread of the disease. That's why researchers, led by Penn Dental Medicine in Philadelphia, PA, created a chewing gum from plant-based materials that could reduce the SARS-CoV-2 viral load in saliva. Speaking to Medical News Today, Henry Daniell, Ph.D., vice-chair and W.D. Miller Professor in the Department of Basic & Translational Sciences at Penn Dental Medicine in Philadelphia, PA, lead author of the study, said: “SARS-CoV-2 replicates in the salivary glands, therefore, debulking viruses in the oral cavity should decrease reinfection of [people with a SARS-CoV-2 infection], in addition to prevention of transmission.” “So,” Dr. Daniell continued, “[Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)] chewing gum should provide people with COVID-19 time to build immunity and help reduce disease severity, which depends on viral load.” The current study appears in Molecular Therapy. Image by davidgaigg from Pixabay 

Ultra-processed foods linked with higher risk of heart attack, stroke

09/12/2021

The impact of heavily processed foods on your health has been widely acknowledged for some time. But now new research shows just how potentially dangerous consuming such food products can be for people who have already had a heart attack or stroke. According to the research by the Department of Epidemiology and Prevention of the I.R.C.C.S. Neuromed in Pozzilli, Italy, consuming ultra-processed foods (UPFs) increases the risk of a second — and more likely fatal — heart attack or stroke for people who already have cardiovascular disease (CVD). In fact, the research shows that UPFs are associated with a two-thirds increased risk of a second heart attack or stroke, this time fatal, compared with people who eat these types of foods less frequently. Furthermore, the researchers also found that the probability of people who frequently eat UPFs of dying from any cause was 40% higher. Examples of UPFs include soft drinks, sweet or savory packaged snacks, reconstituted meat products, and pre-prepared frozen dishes. Worryingly, many adult Americans' diets comprise high levels of UPFs, as much as 60% in some cases. The study is published in the European Heart Journal. *Image by Shirley Hirst from Pixabay

Scientists discover trigger for rare blood clots with AstraZeneca COVID vaccine

06/12/2021

In rare cases – estimated to be around 4-6 of every one million people - some individuals who receive the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine develop blood clots that can pose a risk to their health. Now, scientists believe they have discovered the trigger as to why this happens. The team – from Cardiff in Wales and the United States – have shown how a protein in the blood is attracted to a key component of the vaccine like a magnet. This attraction invokes an immune response that can see blood clots form. However, all of this relies on a series of unlucky events, which is why the number of people who experience such clots is so low. Prof Alan Parker, one of the researchers at Cardiff University, told BBC News: "The adenovirus has an extremely negative surface, and platelet factor four is extremely positive and the two things fit together quite well." He added: "We've been able to prove the link between the key smoking guns of adenoviruses and platelet factor four. "What we have is the trigger, but there's a lot of steps that have to happen next." The scientists' study is published in the journal Science Advances. *Image by Angelo Esslinger from Pixabay

A fifth of hypertension patients take drugs that actually increase blood pressure

30/11/2021

A new study has, worryingly, revealed that one in five people who have hypertension (high blood pressure) take medication that actually increases blood pressure. This revelation is particularly pertinent considering that nearly half of US adults have high blood pressure, according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Medical advice says people's blood presasure should, ideally, be under 120/80 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). Now, researchers from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, United States, a Harvard-affiliated teaching hospital, have discovered that a significant proportion of people with hypertension are actually taking medication that may raise blood pressure. Indeed, according to the team's research, which looked at data relating to some 27,599 US adults, nearly one in five with hypertension were on medication that could raise their blood pressure. In fact, the authors found that a total of 15% of all adults were on these medications. While it was expected that some of the individuals would be taking prescription medications that could raise blood pressure, the researchers were surprised to find that there were so many. Speaking to Medical News Today, letter co-author, Dr. Timothy Anderson, said: “In some cases, these medications are appropriate, as they are treating an important issue without a better alternative. However, in many cases, I think the risk of raising blood pressure is simply overlooked, particularly for patients using these medications for many years.” The results of the study cited in this article appear in a research letter in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine. *image courtesy of Image by Gerald Oswald from Pixabay 

Drinking more coffee could lower risk of dementia, study finds

25/11/2021

A new long-term study has found that people who drink higher amounts of coffee may be less likely to develop Alzheimer's disease. As part of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of ageing, the study investigated whether coffee intake affected the rate of cognitive decline of more than 200 Australians over a decade. According to the research led by Edith Cowan University scientists, coffee intake may not only be a protective factor against Alzheimer's disease, but increased consumption of coffee could potentially reduce cognitive decline. Lead investigator Dr Samantha Gardener said the results showed an association between coffee and several important Alzheimer's disease-related markers. "We found participants with no memory impairments and with higher coffee consumption at the start of the study had lower risk of transitioning to mild cognitive impairment -- which often precedes Alzheimer's disease -- or developing Alzheimer's disease over the course of the study," she said. Higher coffee intake gave positive results in relation to certain domains of cognitive function, specifically executive function which includes planning, self-control and attention. Drinking more coffee also seemed to be linked to slowing the accumulation of the amyloid protein in the brain, a key factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, the researchers were not able to differentiate between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption, nor determine differences based on coffee preparation method or additions such as milk or sugar. Image by Elias Shariff Falla Mardini from Pixabay

Study finds vitamin D and omega-3 supplements reduce autoimmune disease risk

23/11/2021

Previous research has indicated a link between vitamin D supplements and a reduced risk of autoimmune diseases. Omega-3 supplements have also been shown to have a similar effect.  Now, a new study by Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston has underlined these links. According to the trial involving 25,871 adults, with an average age of 67 years, taking vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acid supplements for 5 years reduced the occurrence of autoimmune disease in older individuals by 25–30%, compared with not taking them. Presented the findings at the American College of Rheumatology’s ACR Convergence 2021, senior author of the research, Dr. Karen Costenbader, director of the Lupus Program at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, said: “The reduced incidence of RA and polymyalgia rheumatica are very important for rheumatology. “The more pronounced effect after 2–3 years of use with vitamin D makes sense biologically and supports long-term use.” In the final analysis, the incidence of autoimmune disease was reduced by 25–30% for participants who took vitamin D supplements, omega-3 fatty acid supplements, or both, compared with people who took only placebos. Co-author Prof. JoAnn Manson added: "The findings are exciting because no other preventive therapies are available to reduce the risk of developing these serious health conditions.” *Image by Kirsten ter Borg from Pixabay

Long Covid may hinder women's response, recovery from exercise

18/11/2021

While the majority of people who contract COVID-19 recover within 3-4 weeks following infection, there are some who experience lingering symptoms for months afterwards. These symptoms, which can include shortness of breath, loss of smell and taste, brain fog, headaches and fatigue, are referred to collectively as 'long Covid'. Now, research has shown that this so-called long Covid seems to more severely impact women's cardiovascular and lung function than men. According to researchers at Indiana University, Bloomington, women with COVID-19 who had mild-to-moderate illness during the acute phase showed a slower decline in their heart rate after the 6-minute walk test than the participants in the control group. This difference was more pronounced in women actively experiencing long COVID symptoms. Study lead author, Dr. Stephen Carter, a professor at Indiana University, said: “A puzzling feature of post-acute COVID-19 syndrome is the variable presentation of symptoms that appear to be independent of initial illness severity. The present work shows even those with mild-to-moderate initial symptoms can be affected with underlying cardiac-related irregularities with the potential to affect exercise tolerance and/or activities of daily living.” “It’s also plausible that lingering symptoms, particularly muscle/joint pain and/or shortness of breath, may trigger a maladaptive pattern that accelerates systemic deconditioning. However, further research is needed.” The study appears in the journal Experimental Physiology. *Image by StockSnap from Pixabay

Herbs, spices can reduce blood pressure, research finds

16/11/2021

The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says nearly half of American adults are living with high blood pressure (hypertension). Left untreated, this hypertension can lead to serious cardiovascular conditions, such as heart attack, stroke and heart failure. Individuals with hypertension are often advised to reduce their salt intake, as doing so can help reduce blood pressure levels. Now, a group of researchers from Pennsylvania State University has decided to investigate the health effects of herbs and spices, particularly whether they can benefit people with hypertension. The researchers conducted a randomized, controlled trial to look at the effect of longer-term consumption of herbs and spices on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. They found that a higher level of herbs and spices in food reduced 24-hour blood pressure readings. The findings appear in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Speaking to Medical News Today, Prof. Penny Kris-Etherton, one of the lead authors of the study, said: “Indeed, the blood pressure-lowering effects of herbs and spices in an average Western diet were surprising to me. “We [already know] about the effects of many lifestyle factors, especially dietary factors, that can increase blood pressure — such as sodium, alcohol, and caffeine — and others that can decrease blood pressure, such as potassium, magnesium, and calcium, […] weight loss, physical activity, and some vitamins, including folate and vitamin D when intake is low, but the blood pressure-lowering effects of herbs and spices are new!” *Image by monicore from Pixabay

France allows supervised self-tests to be used to obtain Covid health passes

11/11/2021

Since October 15, people in France have not been able to use supervised self-tests to obtain a Covid health pass. But the French government has now suspended this decree, effectively opening the door for supervised self-tests to be used for health pass purposes. Covid tests became payable on October 15 and the government said that unvaccinated people would no longer be allowed to carry out a self-test under the supervision of a health professional in order to obtain a health pass. At the time, the Conseil d’État (Council of State) said “this form of test had only been provided in order to avoid any difficulties with accessing PCR or antigen tests as the health pass was being implemented. “These difficulties did not materialise and there is no risk of them appearing now.” On October 29, the Conseil d’État suspended this decree, reintroducing the possibility of obtaining a health pass through a negative self-administered test. So instead of paying around €25-€30 for a pharmacist or other professional to carry out the procedure, individuals can buy a self-test for around €5. Government information service service-public.fr now says people can acquire a temporary health pass by presenting “proof of a negative PCR, antigen or self-test carried out under the supervision of a health professional within the last 72 hours.” *Image by Bastian Riccardi from Pixabay

South Korea and Europe partner for innovations in health and science

02/11/2021

The International Vaccine Institute (IVI) in South Korea and the Joint European Disruptive Initiative (JEDI) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to establish a collaborative relationship. Both organizations are dedicated to advancing innovations in health and science. IVI and JEDI will explore many cooperation routes, in particular around innovative approaches to zoonoses, infectious diseases and in addressing the global threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Additionally, the MOU invites Dr. Jerome Kim, Director General of IVI; Francois Belin, Chief Operating Officer of IVI; and Dr Anh Wartel, Deputy Director General of IVI’s Clinical, Assessment, Regulatory, and Evaluation Unit; to participate in JEDI’s International Partners Advisory Board. The signing ceremony took place at the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) in Paris, France with Dr Jerome Kim and André Loesekrug-Pietri, Chairman of JEDI. Dr Kim said “With JEDI’s common interest in combatting existing and future zoonoses as well as global AMR, we look forward to collaborating on solutions to this threat to humanity.” Loesekrug-Pietri said “As we did for the JEDI GrandChallenge against Covid-19, we want to introduce disruptive approaches to other fields of healthcare, with boldness and a total focus on excellence. As a first concrete step, we are excited to work with IVI to tackle antimicrobial resistance, including new capabilities in computational biology.” *Image by Michal Jarmoluk from Pixabay

France to relax rules on prescription glasses, contact lenses

26/10/2021

France will soon allow people aged 16-42 who need to renew a prescription for glasses or contact lenses to do so without requiring a trip to an ophthalmologist. MPs voted in favour of the move, which is designed to reduce waiting times and, ultimately, afford a better service for patients, last Friday. Under the new rules, the scope of orthoptists’ work will increase and they will also be able to prescribe glasses and contact lenses. Supporters say it will make access to eyecare easier for the public and reduce waiting time but critics say it will reduce the quality of care. Up until now, anyone wishing to get a prescription for glasses in France needed to visit an ophthalmologist – a medical doctor and surgeon specialising in eye diseases and varied complaints. This is in contrast to countries such as the UK, where people can get a prescription for glasses and contact lenses by visiting a high street optician, instead of a doctor. In France, ophthalmologists are often based in hospitals. As a result, there can be delays getting appointments. In contrast, orthoptists are specialists in vision, eye movements, and how the eyes work together, and may not be based in a hospital. They are less likely to deal with urgent cases. *Image by Nicola Giordano from Pixabay 

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